A Guide to the Washoe Indians Research Papers
of Warren L. d'Azevedo
Collection No. 99-39

This collection was processed with the generous financial assistance of the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc. The Special Collections Department thanks the donor of this collection, Dr. Warren d’Azevedo, for applying for and administering the Wenner-Gren grant.

Warren d'Azevedo

Warren Leonard d’Azevedo was born in Oakland, California, on August 19, 1920. He received his B.A. degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and his Ph.D. from Northwestern University in 1962.

d’Azevedo’s graduate studies in anthropology centered on the Washoe Indians of western Nevada and on western Africa where he lived during a graduate fellowship. He taught at Northwestern University, the University of California at Berkeley, the University of Utah, the University of Pittsburgh, and the University of Nevada, Reno, as a cultural anthropologist.

In 1962 while teaching anthropology at the University of Utah he was asked to play a key role in developing and implementing the training of Peace Corps volunteer trainees recruited to teach in elementary and secondary schools in Liberia. He continued to serve as an area specialist for other Liberian Peace Corps training projects during the 1960s, instructing trainees at the University of Pittsburgh, Syracuse University, and San Francisco State College. He was also an advisor for programs in Nigeria and Sierra Leone.

Dr. d’Azevedo was invited to teach anthropology in the combined Psychology and Sociology Departments at the University of Nevada, Reno, in 1963. In 1967, a separate Anthropology Department was established with Dr. d’Azevedo as the first chairman. He retired as professor emeritus in 1988. In addition to an academic interest in Africa, d’Azevedo focused on the Washoe Indians of Nevada and California. He began his contacts and studies of the Washoe culture in 1952 while he was a graduate student at UC Berkeley under Dr. Albert Kroeber and Dr. Robert Heiser. He spent several years living in the vicinity of Hope Valley and Woodfords, California, and in the Carson Valley of Nevada, where he focused on the distribution of the Washoe in their territory, tribal space, and in their history and their culture. His UCB mentors were involved in the development of the California Indian Claims case and d’Azevedo continued that interest.

Through these studies d’Azevedo developed a far-reaching expertise in Washoe studies, published extensively, and served as an expert witness in court actions involving claims-related and other legal cases.

Warren d’Azevedo directed two notable projects while at the University of Nevada, Reno. The first was the National Science Foundation Summer Field Training Project in Anthropology which Warren directed during its life span of 1964-1971. The project trained anthropology students in the fine art of conducting field studies. Records for the project have been donated by Dr. d’Azevedo to the Special Collections Department (collection 92-09).

The second project was the publication of a major reference volume on Indians of the Great Basin for the Smithsonian’s Handbook of North American Indians series. Warren served as editor for Volume 11 from its inception in 1970 to its publication in 1985. Records of that project were also donated to the Special Collections Department by Dr. d’Azevedo (collection 92-08).

d’Azevedo is married to the former Kathleen Addison and they have two children: Anya and Erik.

Scope and Contnet

This collection consists of the research papers of Dr. Warren L. d’Azevedo related to the Washoe Indians of Nevada and California. This is the second collection of research papers about the Washoe given by Dr. d’Azevedo to the Special Collections Department. This collection, donated in September 1999, consists of materials which d’Azevedo kept in his home. The previous accession, donated in 1997 (collection 97-04), consists of materials d’Azevedo kept in his office in the Anthropology Dept. of the University of Nevada, Reno. The two collections are closely related but do not replicate each other.

This collection of research materials about the Washoe Indians of Nevada and California was accumulated over the course of five decades of anthropological field research and scholarship, beginning in 1952. It constitutes a significant contribution to knowledge of the social organization, distribution, ethnohistory, arts, and religion of the Washoe Indians. In addition to materials reflective of the work directly carried out by d’Azevedo, the collection contains information compiled by his graduate students who themselves contributed significant scholarship about the Washoe.

This collection was processed with financial assistance from the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc. of New York, NY. The grant funded two positions; one held by Penny Rucks, who processed the manuscript materials, and one by Glenda Powell who processed the photographs in the collection. The grant also paid for archival supplies. The Special Collections Department is grateful to the Foundation for their generous financial assistance and to Warren d’Azevedo, for writing and administering the grant. The Department is also appreciative of the care and processing of the collection by Rucks and Powell. Their work made it feasible to catalog the collection and make it available to researchers much more quickly.

Rucks and Powell processed all of the Washoe Indian research materials held by Dr. d’Azevedo at his home in Reno. However, a portion of the collection is still in active use and has been retained by Dr. d’Azevedo.

This collection consists of 10.5 cubic feet of materials, dating from 1902-1998 . All photographs were separated from the archival materials and placed in the photographic archives of Special Collections. There are restrictions on use of portions of this collection: any field notes with details of personal life or interviews of individuals, in either written or audio form, are closed until the year 2010. Permission to use these kinds of materials must be obtained from the donor, Warren L. d’Azevedo.

The collection was divided into sixteen series. Series numbers were also assigned to those materials retained by d’Azevedo; when they are donated to the Special Collections Department they will be integrated into this collection. The titles of those retained series are listed in the following pages.  The series which were transferred to Special Collections include these: Tribal Governments of the Great Basin, Washoe Indian Research Files and Student Papers (partially retained by d’Azevedo); Washoe Burial Sites and Cemeteries, Washoe Materials for the Great Basin Indians Handbook, Cultural Resource Management Reports, Ethnobotanical Research, Antelope Valley Land Use, Field Notes of Early Washoe Ethnographers, Washoe Fishing, and Audio Tapes. Much of this material is unavailable elsewhere.

Included with this collection were a number of published reports, books, journal articles, and monographs. Published materials were separated from the manuscript materials. Those items already in the book collections of the Special Collections Department or University Library were returned to the donor. Materials not already in the Department’s book stacks and pertinent to Department’s collection policy were retained and will be cataloged as individual items. In any case, the title pages/cover pages of all materials removed from the manuscript collection were photocopied; those photocopies were filed with their appropriate series in order to provide a complete picture of d’Azevedo’s reference sources.

Although both “Washoe” and “Washo” are correct when referring to this culture, the term “Washoe” has been used for consistency in this guide unless “Washo” was used as the title of a book or article.

Warren d’Azevedo has honored the Special Collections Department and University Archives with a number of important gifts of his papers and records. The include the following collections:

    d’Azevedo, Warren L. Research Collection, 1859-1992. 9 cu. ft. Finding aid available. 97-04.

    d’Azevedo, Warren L. Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 11, Great Basin Indians Editorial Materials, 1970-1985. 13 cu. ft. 

                Finding aid available. 92-08.

    d’Azevedo, Warren L. Papers, 1959-1987, 1990. 9 cu. ft. Finding aid available. AC 0221 (University Archives).

    d’Azevedo, Warren L. Peace Corps Training Records, 1961-1970. 2 cu. ft. Finding aid available. 93-40.

    d’Azevedo, Warren L. Sven Liljeblad Centennial Album, 1999-25 cu. ft. 99-21.

    National Science Foundation (U.S.). Tri-Institutional Field Training Program in Anthropology. University of Nevada, Reno, Ethnological Archives, 1960-1977. Finding aid available. 13.5 cu. ft. 92-09.

In addition, Dr. d’Azevedo has secured the following anthropological collections for the Special Collections Department:

    Downs, James F. Papers, 1859-1999. 1.5 cu. ft. Finding aid available. 99-38.

    Price, John A. Washo Indians Research Papers, 1961-1988..5 cu. ft. Finding aid available. 99-20.

    Wnght, George F. Papers, 1931-1972. 9 cu. ft. Finding aid available. 90-37.


Processed by: Penny Rucks and Glenda Powell
Guide edited by: Susan Searcy
Date: November 18, 1999


The Washoe Indians Research papers of Dr. Warren L. d’Azevedo have been arranged in the following series:

I.       Tribal Governments of the Great Basin

II.      Lake Tahoe and Cave Rock Research Files/Land use and Politics. Retained by donor.

III.    Washoe Indian Research Files and Student Papers. Split between Special Collections and the donor

IV.    Straight With the Medicine Background Files. Retained by donor.

V.     Washoe Burial Sites and Cemeteries

VI.    Washoe Field Notes. Retained by donor

VII.   Washoe Materials for Great Basin Handbook

VIII.  Cultural Resource Management Reports.

IX.    Ethnobotanical Research

X.     Antelope Valley Land Use

XI.    "The Washoe" Drafts and Revisions. Retained by donor

XII.   Field Notes of Early Washoe Ethnographers

XIII. Washoe Fishing

XIV. Maps: Washoe Territory and Land Use Issues, Place Names. Retained by donor

XV.  Correspondence. Retained by donor.

XVI. Audio Tapes


99/39/I     Series I. Tribal Governments of the Great Basin; Washoe Nation General Reports.1936-1993.     .75 cu. ft. 

This series contains documents generated by Washoe governmental entities, grant applications, reports on various topics of interest to the Washoe Tribe; essays on the Indian Reorganization Act and the status of Indians in U.S. law; and development, strategic, and comprehensive plans for the Washoe Tribe. Dr. d’Azevedo’s comments or research results were often incorporated into these materials.



I/1/1-2      Washoe Cultural Committee minutes, correspondence. 1990-1992.

I/2/1-2      Grant proposals. 1992-1993.

I/3            American Indians Religious Freedoms Act of 1978. Artifacts and Burials Protection.

I/4            Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada conference. 1964.

I/5            Washoe advocacy letters and documentation. 1974-1992.

I/6            Reno-Sparks Tribal Council meeting. Dec. 2, 1986.

I/7/1-6     Articles about the history of tribal government legislation.

                7/1     Dressler, Tom. “The Development of the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony.” 1974.

                7/2     MacGregor, Gordon. “Washo Indians of the Sacramento Jurisdiction.” 1936.

                7/3/1-3     Office of Indian Affairs, Dept. Of the Interior. 

                                    “Human Dependency and Economic Survey, Sacramento, California, Indian Jurisdiction.” 1936.

                7/4/1     Rusco, Elmer R. “The Origins of the Indian Reorganization Act.” 1980.

                7/4/2     Rusco, Elmer R. “The Status of Indians in Nevada Law.” 1983.

                7/5     Shayne Del Cohen. Nevada Tribal History and Government.” 1983.

                7/6     U.S. Dept. Of the Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indians at Work (journal/magazine), vol. XIII, no. 1, May-June, 1945.

I/8            Washoe land titles legislation.

I/9            Miscellaneous clippings and letters.

I/10          Murray-McCormick Environmental Group. Washoe Nation General Plan. Dec. 1973.

I/11          Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California. Overall Economic Development Plan. Dec. 1982.

I/12          Washoe Tribe Hunting and Fishing Commission. Special Report for the Washoe Tribal Council. Jan. 1983.

I/13          Washoe Cultural Foundation, Inc. [Proposed Washoe Indian cultural center for South Lake Tahoe, Calif.]. May 1983.

I/14          Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California. Washoe Comprehensive Planning Project. Vol. II, Budgets/Indirect Cost Allocation Plan. 

                 Nov. 1982.

I/15          Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California. Tribal Strategic Plan. Sept. 1991.


99-39/II     Series II. Lake Tahoe and Cave Rock Research Files/Land Use and Politics.     Retained by donor.


99-39/III     Series III. Washoe Indian Research Files and Student Papers. 1912-1996.    1.25 cu. ft.

This series contains reference material from published sources; archives, including the George Wright Papers (in the Special Collections Department); conferences and unpublished reports; and papers and notes, primarily from former students. Some of the student files include correspondence. Most of the published materials are in the form of photocopies. Some of the materials originally in this series were removed by the manuscript curator and either returned to the donor or placed in the Special Collections book stacks. The list below notes such action. d’Azevedo retained several boxes of materials in this series; they’ll be added at a later date.



III/1           Published and unpublished references in linguistics arranged alphabetically by author. The first sub-series includes three shorter references.

III/1/1        Cohodas, Marvin. “Washoe Basketweaving: A Historical Outline,” 

                        in The Art of Native American Basketry, edited by Frank W. Porter III. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1990. 

                        Photocopy of article and letter from author to d’Azevedo.

                  Cook, S.F. “The Epidemic of 1830-1833 in California and Oregon,” 

                        in University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 43, no. 3 (portion). 

                  Also, “Aboriginal Population of San Joaquin Valley,” 

                        in University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 16, no. 2.

III/1/2         Curtis, E.S. “The Washo,” in The American Indian. Berkeley: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1926. REMOVED

III/1/3         Dangberg, Grace. “The Washo Language,” in Nevada Historical Society Papers, vol. III, 1921-1922. REMOVED

                   Jacobsen, W.H. Jr. “Washo Linguistic Prehistory,” presented in a workshop on linguistics and archaeology. 1984.

                   Lowie, Robert H. Washo Texts, reprinted in Anthropological Linguistics from a 1963 monograph 

                        compiled by L.C. Lowie after her husband’s death. REMOVED

III/1/4         Elston, Robert. “A Formal Analysis of Washo Consanguineal Terms” for Anthropology 503 class, Washington State University. 1969.

III/1/5         Kroeber, A.L. “The Washo Language of East Central California and Nevada,”

                        in University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 4, no. 5. REMOVED

III/1/6         Lamb, S.M. “Linguistic Prehistory of the Great Basin”, 

                        in International Journal of American Linguistics, vol. XXIX, pp. 95-100, with notes by d’Azevedo.

                   Committee of American Anthropological Association. “Phonetic Transcription of Indian Languages,” 

                        in Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 66, no. 6. 1916.

III/1/7        Morrison, Roger B.

“Quaternary Stratigraphic, Hydrologic, and Climatic History of the Great Basin, with Emphasis on Lake Lahontan, Bonneville, and Tecopa,” in The Geology of North America, Vol. K-2, Quaternary Nonglacial Geology: Conterminous U.S. The Geological Society of America, 1991. REMOVED

III/1/8        Price, John A. The Washo Indians: History, Life Cycle, Religion, Technology, Economy and Modern Life. 

                    Nevada State Museum Occasional Papers, no. 4. 1980. REMOVED

III/1/9/1     Van Winkle, Barrik. “Where It’s At: Giving Spatial Directions in Washoe English.” 1983.

III/1/9/2     Van Winkle, Barrik. “Lexical Retention Among English-Speaking Washo.” 1977.

III/2           Published and unpublished general references, used primarily in research of the history of Washoe land use. Arranged alphabetically.

III/2/1        Dangberg, Grace. Washo Tales: Three Original Washo Indian Tales. Nevada State Museum Occasional Paper no. 1. REMOVED

III/2/2/1-5       Davis, William Newell. “California East of the Sierra: A Study in Economic Sectionalism.” Ph.D.. Dissertation in History, Univ. Of California, 1942. Folder 1 in Box 1; folders 2-5 in Box 2.



III/2/2/2-5  Davis, con’t.

III/2/3         Downs, James F. “The Significance of Environmental Manipulation in Great Basin Cultural Development.” Notations by d’Azevedo.

III/2/4/1-4  Goodwin, Victor O. “Verdi and Dog Valley - A Story of Land Abuse and Restoration.” USDA Forest Service technical paper. 

                    Toiyabe National Forest.1967.

III/2/5        Lowie, Robert H. “Ethnographic Notes on the Washo,” 

                    in University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 301-352. REMOVED

III/2/6/1-2  Simirenko, Alex. “Socio-Economic Variables in the Acculturation Process: A Pilot Study of Two Washo Indian Communities.” 

                    U.S. Dept. Of Health, Education, and Welfare. Office of Education, Bureau of Research. 1966.

III/2/7/1-3  Excerpts from the George Wright Papers. Correspondence about and excerpts related to Docket 288, the Washoe Indian land claims case. 

The Wright papers were given to d’Azevedo by Mrs. Lou Wright in 1978, then donated to Special Collections in 1990 and accessioned as 90-37. These copies are excerpts kept for reference. Other materials from these papers are included in Series XIII, on fishing.

III/2/7/1     Correspondence about collection and copy of Vol. 11 of Wright’s testimony.

III/2/7/2     Richard Barrington deposition (early 1950s) and text of speech about Barrington given by Wright for the Centennial Celebration on Nevada Day, Oct. 31, 1964.

III/2/7/3     Copies of correspondence about Richard Barrington’s deposition (Vol. II) and some of the correspondence among the anthropologists (e.g., Omer Stewart), Wright and some Washoe individuals (e.g., Manuel Bender).

III/3         Miscellaneous: some archival references; a bibliography on Washoe studies (1992); program and notes from conferences and meetings of the 8th California Indian Conference (Berkeley, 1992), which included a symposium on Ishi, and notes from the Great Basin meetings.

III/4         Student publications, papers, notes and correspondence, primarily from students of the National Science Foundation Field School in Ethnography. Arranged alphabetically by name.

III/4/1     Handelman, Don. Collection of reprints of his scholarly articles sent to d’Azevedo over the years. 

                    See also series XII/1/2/2 for correspondence to d’Azevedo.

III/4/2/1-4 Hittman, Michael. Correspondence and 2 monographs. In 1995 Hittman sent d’Azevedo two monographs and a letter about being a fiction writer instead of “an anthropologist.” “Why Jews Talk” is a story he sent to Warren along with his Ph.D. dissertation, “Opiates and Federal Dependency, or, Why Smith and Mason Paiutes Rejected Ben Lancaster’s Peyotism in 1936-1938: An Alternative to Omer C. Stewart.” Some comments from d’Azevedo included.

III/4/3     Montgomery, Ed. Letter and excerpts from field notes.

III/4/4     Mordy, Brooke. Draft of M.A. thesis: “Some Social Factors in a Conflict Over Residence Rights in a Nevada Indian Colony.” 1966.     REMOVED

III/4/5     Spring, Anita. Correspondence, vita and research proposal for African field work. A copy of her thesis, “Washo Marriage: A Social Institution in Transition” was REMOVED.

III/4/6     Stornetta, Susan. NFS proposal for exploratory archaeological research: “Life Along the Lakeshore: The Archaeology of Washoe Lake, Nevada.” 1992.

III/4/7     Van Winkle, Barrick and Jo Ann Nevers. Two papers: one, by Van Winkle, critiques Wa She Shu: A Washo Tribal History by Jo Ann Nevers, who reviews Van Winkle’s critique. A note from the latter indicates he had hoped to co-write a paper on this dialog with the author.

III/5     Sacramento State College student papers. Correspondence and student papers from Don Jewell, an instructor at Sacramento State, who brought some students from his Anthropology 178 class on a field trip to “meet a Great Basin Indian and collect at least a single item of ethnic information.” He sent these student papers to d’Azevedo. One includes a Washoe place-name and “old camp site map” from Tahoe.

III/6     Phil Leis research proposal, correspondence, and photographs. Leis, presently chair of the Anthropology at Brown University, and a colleague of d’Azevedo’s from Northwestern University, conducted research in 1956 on child rearing and culture change among the Washoe Indians. He sent Warren the research proposal in 1956 and much later, in 1983, some of the photographs of Washoe people taken in July, 1965. These are prints; only a few are identified. See also Leis’ field notes and a few additional photographs accessioned separately.

III/7     Peter Miller. Field notes and letter to the members of the Washoe Chapter of the Native American Church of North America. Miller, a graduate student at the Univ. Of Arizona in 1964, and a former colleague of d’Azevedo’s while they were both at the Univ. Of Pittsburgh, conducted field work on peyotism among the Woodfords Washoe during the summer of 1964. He pursued a degree in physical anthropology and did not write up his results for publication. He sent these field notes to Warren.

III/8     Program, abstract, notes, and correspondence from the Great Basin Anthropological Conference, Kings Beach, Calif. 1996

III/8/1   Notes and correspondence about the conference, final program, and abstracts.

III/8/2    d’Azevedo’s handwritten notes and copies of papers presented during the symposium, Recent Contributions to Washoe Indian Heritage Studies.


99-39/IV Series IV. Straight With the Medicine Files. Retained by donor.


99-39/V Series V. Washoe Burial Sites and Cemeteries. 1955; 1980-1992.    .25 cu. ft.

This is a research file compiled by d’Azevedo for two inventories conducted of Washoe burial sites. Included is a compilation of relevant field notes from the 1950s for an earlier research project and a 1980 survey of burial sites from Dayton to Woodfords as part of a contract sponsored by the U.S. Forest Service that resulted in collaboration with Intermountain Research. Also growing out of that project was the report, “An Ethnohistoric and Ethnoarchaeological Study of a Washoe Cemetery at Camp Richardson, Lake Tahoe.” A second project, sponsored by the Washoe Tribe in 1992, was generated by the trespass and disturbance of the Kingsbury/Sheridan Washoe Cemetery by a land developer. Materials include reports, notes, and photographs. All photographs, including an extensive series of images from the Camp Richardson project, have been transferred to the Special Collections photo archives. Most of the photos were accompanied by logs identifying the images.



V/1/1     Research design for 1980 Intermountain Research project for Camp Richardson; research notes compiled by d’Azevedo from work in 1955; and notes about strategy, tasks, and projected costs.

V/1/2-3     Final report and appendices for “an Ethnohistoric and Ethnoarchaeological Study of a Washoe Cemetery at Camp Richardson, Lake Tahoe.” 1981.

V/2     Sheridan/Carrie Creek Cemetery: notes and photos from initial site visit by d’Azevedo with elders to document damage (July 21, 1992) and a note about mitigation (Aug. 10, 1992).

V/3     1992 project file: background. Includes official correspondence and/or affidavits from and among tribal officials, elders, Nevada SHPO and the developer about the trespass (July 24-Aug. 26, 1992); maps and notes compiled for a site survey made during the second survey; misc. background information about land issues from Washoe individuals and land managers with jurisdiction of land within aboriginal territory, correspondence, and information from Donald Tuohy of the Nevada State Museum about the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act.

V/4     Follow-up visit of Oct. 6, 1992, notes and photos. Includes map and other background material from d’Azevedo’s field notebook. This field trip included site visits to the Kingsbury Washoe Cemetery/Captain George Cemetery, and to the Job’s Peak Cemetery in Faye Canyon. Material photocopied from the IMR report had been filed in folders in preparation for site visits to other identified cemetery burial grounds.


99-39/VI Series VI. Washoe Field Notes. Retained by donor.


99-39/VII Series VII. Washoe Materials for Great Basin Handbook. 1984-1987.    .25 cu. ft.

The bulk of d’Azevedo’s editorial materials related to the Smithsonian’s Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 11, Great Basin, is contained in collection 92-08. The materials in 99­39/VII, consist of pre- and post-production correspondence with various authors, scholars, and Smithsonian editors; and d’Azevedo’s notebooks containing his handwritten draft of “The Washoe.” Also included are some scholarly reviews of the volume.



VII/1     Pre-production correspondence with Sturtevand, editor of the Handbook series and Paula Cordell, July 1984-1985. Includes drafts, proofs, and notes about the preface and introduction. Includes d’Azevedo’s notes about the Smithsonian production staff.

VII/2     Post-production correspondence about adjustments to the contract, marketing and travel funds for d’Azevedo and Catherine Fowler to attend the publication party in Washington, D.C. Sept. 1985-Nov. 1986.

VII/3 Handwritten draft for final sections of “The Washoe,” written in Liberia in 1985 by d’Azevedo.

VII/4 Material related to locating and selecting graphics and editing captions of maps and tables for the Handbook, mostly in reference to the Washoe chapter. Included are photos and photocopies of photographs which have been transferred to photo archives.

    4/1 B&W prints and identification of color slides borrowed from Ken Miller for use in the Washoe chapters. To photo archives.

    4/2 Correspondence, mostly between d’Azevedo and Joanna Scherer, 1984-1985, about photographs to be used in the Washoe chapter.

    4/3 Correspondence and references related to the “Woodrow Wilson basket.”

    4/4 Correspondence and research regarding Edward Vischer paintings, among the earliest depictions of Washoe Indians. 

            One was selected for the Washoe chapter.

    4/5 Correspondence and research on Lawrence and Houseworth stereoscopic photographic image of a Washoe family, 

            “The Chief and his family,” also on Indian Victorian clothing.

    4/6  Correspondence and background on photograph possibly taken by George Wharton James.

    4/7  Photocopies of photos of artifacts from museum collections used for figures in book.

    4/8  Correspondence between d’Azevedo and Judy Wojcik, the cartographer for the volume, about maps and tables. 

            Includes a draft of figure 1 of the Washoe chapter, “Early 19th-century core area.”

VII/5     Copies of publication announcement and reviews.

VII/6     Post-production correspondence with contributors and reviewers.


99-39/VIII Series VIII. Cultural Resource Management Reports. 1977-1994.     1 folder.

This series originally contained reports from agencies and consultants related to cultural resource investigations and management. Most were archaeological reports - surveys, site records, and investigations conducted by various researchers within the traditional territory of the Washoe Indians or relevant to Washoe culture or history. Also included were ethnographic and historic overviews and contexts related to federal cultural resource programs. All of these reports were duplicates of materials already in the Special Collections or general library stacks and were returned to the donor after photocopies of title pages were made by staff.

VIII/1     Photocopies of title pages of materials returned to donor.


99-39/IX Series IX. Ethnobotanical Research. 1903-1996.     .5 cu. ft.

Notes from field work and reference materials compiled by Warren and Kathy d’Azevedo. Includes photographs, plant specimens, and a card file cross-referencing three sets of alphabetical lists of ethnobiological resources (including animals). The plant specimens have been retained by the donor and will be donated later to another repository.

IX/1     Three sets of index card files on Washoe Indian plant and animal resources. Includes source information from interviews with Washoe consultants conducted by Warren and Kathleen d’Azevedo, from other anthropologists, or from printed sources; date the information was collected; English vernacular and scientific name; and information about traditional uses and preparation. The first set is arranged alphabetically by Washoe term within the following categories: trees/shrubs, animals, insects, medicine plants, sunflowers/seeds, berries, “potatoes” and roots, onions, greens/salads, and prepared foods. The second set is arranged alphabetically by Washoe term. The third set is arranged alphabetically by Latin nomenclature. STORED IN BOX 6.

IX/2     Reference material. Arranged alphabetically by author/researcher.

    2/1 Brown, David. “Biotic Communities of the American Southwest-United States and Mexico,” in Desert Plants, vol. 4, no 1-4, 1982.

    2/2 Fowler, Catherine. Drafts of text and tables with Fowler’s handwritten corrections from the “Subsistence” chapter of Vol. 11 of The Handbook of North American Indians -Great Basin. 1983 and 1984.

    2/3 Gifford, E. W. “California Balanophagy,” in Essays in Anthropology. University of California Press, 1936.

    2/4/1-2 Jack, Jennifer. “Washo Spatial Organization,” 1978. Two versions of a student paper. Jack based her analysis on the distribution of food resources. The draft includes d’Azevedo’s comments. The draft was expanded into a longer paper, “Analysis of the Resources Utilized by the Washo Indians.”



    2/5/1-2 Jacobsen, W.H. Jr., with contributions from Juanita Schubert. Washoe word lists with emphasis on plant and animal resources with some identification by Schubert, who worked with Jacobsen identifying Washoe cultural plants. Includes correspondence.

    2/6 Merriam, C. Hart. U.S. Dept. OfAgriculture, Biological Survey, Field Check Lists, Pacific Coast Region - Wash-shoo. 1903, 1904, 1935.

IX/3     List of references and notes from readings and lectures, and working lists of ethnobotanical terms from John Amato for the Washoe Native Garden in Dresslerville (1996). Program and abstracts from the 21st annual Conference of the Society of Ethnobiology, Reno, 1996.

IX/4     Field notes by Kathy d’Azevedo, compiled in 1955 and 1983. Includes two sets of photographs from field trips in 1983 (transferred to photo archives) and botanical speciments (retained by donor). On Sept. 8, 1983, Kathy and Warren d’Azevedo, Kay Fowler, and Robert Elston took a field trip to look at the Tahoe Cultural Center area with Washoe tribal members. Kathy photographed plants which were later identified by Kay Fowler. On July 28, 1983, the d’Azevedos took a field trip with Earl and Nina James of Woodfords. They collected some place names, photographed plants, and collected specimens.

IX/5     Correspondence about various aspects of ethnobotany. 1984-1993.


99-39/X Series X. Antelope Valley Land Use. 1908 - 1991    5 cu. ft.

This series documents d’Azevedo’s research and the efforts, 1934-1993, of three Southern Paiute and Washoe tribal entities to gain federal recognition as an autonomous Antelope Valley tribe. In 1976, the Antelope Valley Indian Community of Paiute and Washoe descent, based in Coleville, Calif., petitioned the Department of the Interior for confirmation of new status under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. From 1982-1986, Al Logan Slagle prepared a petition for federal recognition for the Antelope Valley Paiute Band. This new entity was formed to promote the interests of Paiute members of the community based on the economic and political advantages of dominating a federally recognized autonomous tribal government. Slagle’s petition was prepared “in cooperation with California Indian Legal Services, Benton Paiutes, U.C. Berkeley students in Anthropology and Native American Studies, and in close consultation with the Antelope Valley Paiute Band.” In 1987, the governing body of the original Antelope Valley Indian Community responded by hiring their own attorney, Timothy W. Pemberton, and forming a research committee to press its own petition for recognition, first submitted, but never completed, in 1976. Neither tribal group pursued their separate petitions after 1988. D’Azevedo continued his research and interest in Antelope Valley intermittently and in 1993, attended a meeting in Coleville of a tribal group, the “Washoe Paiute of Antelope Valley,” and a BIA official about federal recognition. d’Azevedo assembled his transcribed field notes from Washoe interviews for this meeting. The issue of recognition is still pending.

d’Azevedo worked with representatives of the Antelope Indian Community from 1987-1988, compiling ethnographic and historic information to support a claim for Washoe residency as an “autonomous group.” His research covered Antelope Valley history, documenting residents familiar with local history and land use; social organization; Washoe burials; place names; old Washoe families; inter-tribal relations; exploration and settlement; and Washoe/Paiute relations. Because of the emphasis on burials, see also Series V. d’Azevedo’s research files include information from prior to his field work in the 1950s; interviews and correspondence with Indian and non-Indian settlers, notably Fred Green; and documentary anecdotal data. The collection includes his correspondence and results from chemical analysis of salt residues, a resource traditionally collected by the Washoe from Antelope Valley, and from chemical sourcing of obsidian lithic debitage. Also included are photographs, maps, correspondence with tribal representatives and Pemberton, notes from meetings, copies of tribal constitutions, and the Slagle petition.



X/1/1-2     Field notes (1) and file cards (2). Working papers, notes, lists of contacts, references and resources, enrollment lists from the Antelope Valley Community with handwritten notes. A stenographer’s notebook has notes later transcribed with sections lined out, as is customary when field notes are incorporated into later notes or articles. The file cards demonstrate how information and quotations from various sources were assembled and organized by topic. Includes a 1976 letter and enrollment from the Antelope Valley Indian Community and a copy of 25CFRCh.I part 83, “Procedures for Establishing that an American Indian Group Exists as an Indian Tribe,” with d’Azevedo’s margin notes. Photos transferred to photo archives.

X/2     Correspondence among tribal organizations, their lawyers, the Dept. of the Interior, and d’Azevedo, documenting the efforts of three tribal entities to gain federal recognition. 1976-1988.

X/3     Interviews and ancestry charts by Maxine Sam of Washoe residents of Antelope Valley compiled in 1987; also a letter from Mrs. Sam to d’Azevedo in 1989.



X/4     Correspondence and materials from Fred I. Green, letters to d’Azevedo about southern Washoe in Antelope Valley and early exploration, especially Fremont. Includes sketch maps, photos, and articles about “Fremont’s howitzer.” Includes photographs; correspondence sent by Mr. Green; and a photocopy of a photo, the “Pioneers of Antelope Valley.” Sept. 1964-Jan. 1965.

X/5     Unpublished references and sources for Washoe family histories and settlement in Antelope Valley.

    5/1 Correspondence and information from Michael Hittman about the 1880 census of Mason and Smith Valleys and photos of Washoe available from the Bettman Archive.

    5/2 Copies of correspondence about a woman and child identified as Ida McBride and Julia Harrison, photographed by A.A. Forbes between 1902-1916; an unpublished paper about Ben Palmer and his in-laws, the Barbers, noted as successful and respected Carson Valley pioneer ranchers, as African-Americans, and as antecedents of Tom Barber, a Washoe man; and an interview with Bim Koenig from the Mono County Friends of the Library Oral History Project (1979) with information about Washoe families.

    5/3 “Washoe Cultural Geography” by James P. Green. Paper presented at the 1976 Great Basin Anthropological Conference.

    5/4 “Washo-Paiute Presence in Antelope Valley” by Martha Muhs, 1981. Student paper, UC Berkeley Dept. of Anthropology.

X/6 Photocopies of:

        - “Visions of Long Ago” by Victor Larson.

        - “Recollections of the Early History of Smith Valley” by Timothy Smith, 1913.

        - Mono County, California: The Land of Promise for the Man of Industry excerpts, 1908.

X/7 Correspondence and results from obsidian-sourcing testing by Richard Hughes and chemical analysis of salt residues from Little Antelope Valley by the University of Nevada, Reno. 1987-1988.

X/8 d’Azevedo’s notes made for and taken at the meeting of the Washoe-Paiute Tribe of Antelope Valley. Includes agenda and handouts from the Bureau of Indian Affairs about procedures and criteria for achieving federal recognition. 1993.

X/9/1-2 Copy of the Petition for Federal Acknowledgment submitted by the Seminole Nation of Florida, sent to d’Azevedo as a model for the Antelope Community claim.

X/10/1-4 Antelope Valley Paiutes: A Petition for Status Clarification/Federal Recognition, submitted by Al Logan Slagle. 1986.


99-39/XI Series XI. “The Washoe” Drafts and Revisions. Retained by Donor.


99-39/XII Series XII. Field Notes of Early Washoe Ethnographers. 1902-1998.     1 cu. ft.

This series includes d’Azevedo’s research copies and some originals of unpublished notes from the first ethnographers to describe Washoe language and culture. These notes came from museum collections and from avocational historians and artifact collectors who studied and/or worked among the Washoe Indians; permission to publish materials copied from cited manuscript repositories must be obtained from those institutions. Some notes about adjacent tribes are included. Some correspondence to or about the ethnographers is included (e.g., Dangberg). Published works from some of the same researchers are included in other series (e.g., XIII on fishing, etc.). These unpublished references are arranged in the following subseries; some include microfilm.

XII/1     Ethnographers’ field notes, in alphabetical order by name.

XII/2     Museum collections, in alphabetical order.

XII/3     Other: avocational historians and collectors, in alphabetical order.

XII/1/1     Barrett, Stanley. Document and microfilm copies of original hand-written field notes acquired from the Lowie Museum of Anthropology and the Bancroft Library of the University of California, Berkeley, in 1984. Arranged chronologically.

    1/1-2 Barrett’s hand-written descriptions and museum catalog of over 500 items he collected from the Miwok, Maidu, Washoe, and Mono Indians. 307 notebook pages in two files. 1906.

    1/3-5 Preliminary post-field notes of 1907, based on 1906 fieldwork and accessioned by the Lowie on April 13, 1908. Includes some sketch maps. Also includes sections bracketed in red ink by d’Azevedo. In Barrett’s words, “Preliminary notes in connection with and comparison to Merriam’s Miwok paper and my own geography [dialectical and geographic]. Kroeber’s paper V13 superceeds all this. So what I wrote was not finally published.” 150 pages of photocopies in three files.

    1/6 1906 field notes. In Barrett’s words to A.L. Kroeber in 1955: “These field notes made in 1906 are so fragmentary that they will very likely be of little use. They range from Yokuts, etc. to Washoe. There is a chance that someone working later on the language might find an item of use in them.” Includes some Yokut vocabulary, Washoe vocabulary, ethnographic notes, some Paiute (Mono Lake) vocabulary, note from Barrett to Kroeber, and “White Information [re] Miwok and Washo.”

    1/7 Barrett’s field notes, Sept. 1916, and his separate notes made in Nov. 1916 on the aspects of the Washoe numerical system and kin terms that Kroeber included in his monograph, “The Washo Language,” published in the University of California Archaeology and Ethnology Bulletin, vol. 4: pp 299-300.

    1/8-10 Barrett’s 1916 field notes from work with Walker lake and Shivwits Paiute Indians and a manuscript based on these field notes on building and myths. Included are his notes and word list about paints.

    1/11 Microfilm from Bancroft Library.

XII/1/2/1-4 Dangberg, Grace M. Other materials to be added later.

    2/1 Original Washoe field notes include hand-written notecards; typed version of Dangberg’s Washoe personal and place names list; her copy of a 1955 census of “Persons of Washo blood,” compiled by the Carson Indian Agency; and her list of ethnographic informants for Gifford and Lowie.

    2/2 Correspondence and notes between d’Azevedo, Dangberg, and Don Handelman about the use of her materials about Henry Rupert; and about tracking down other archives with Dangberg and Juanita Schubert materials. 1982-1998.

    2/3 “Washo Tales, Translated with an Introduction by Grace Dangberg” typescript. 1968. Some handwritten corrections.

    2/4 Microfilm of Dangberg’s “Washo Grammar” from the originals at the Bancroft Library.



XII/1/3 Hudson, J.W. Correspondence from Hudson to Dr. G.A. Darcy, July 22, 1902; and typed field notes, ca 1902, from the Field Museum of Natural History of Chicago. Penciled brackets, highlighting, and notations by d’Azevedo.

XII/1/4/1-2 Kroeber, A.L.

    4/1 Lexicon of Washo terms, with notes added by d’Azevedo.

    4/2 “Washo Notes” on microfilm.

XII/1/5 Merriam, C. Hart. Vocabularies ofNorth American Indians - Wahshoo or Wash­shoo. 1923.

XII/2 Smithsonian Anthropology Archives.

    2/1 Washoe language vocabulary lists collected by various researchers including Stephan Powers, R. Ridgway, Mrs. Amy Cohn, and Charles Keeler. Includes some comparative Paiute and Shoshone lists. 1863-1902.

    2/2 References on Washoe Indians and a copy of an article, “Basket Makers of California,” from The Basket, vol. 1, no. 3, July 1903.

XII/3 Dr. S.L. Lee collection, copied from Nevada State Museum material, and d’Azevedo’s notes and excerpts from the collection.

    3/1 Numbered catalog of collection donated to the NSM.

    3/2-3 Lee’s personal “basket catalog.”

    3/4 Museum brochure on Lee, typescript of Lee’s original labels, obituary of Lee by Thomas Bath (1927), d’Azevedo’s notes, and his log of photos taken of some items in the collection and in the Juanita Shubert collection in 1955.


99-39/XIII Series XIII. Washoe Fishing. 1970-1996.     .5 cu. ft.

This series includes notes, draft and final manuscripts, correspondence, references, and reports by d’Azevedo and others on the topic of Washoe fishing. Included are notes, working drafts, and research files for an unpublished monograph by d’Azevedo, “To fish or Cut Bait: Missing the Boat to Washoe,” based on his long-standing interest in Washoe Indian fishing traditions and practices. This monograph is based on a paper he read at the 22nd Great Basin Anthropological Meetings in Reno, in 1990. The curious lack of archaeological evidence for the prominence placed on fishing in ethnographic accounts, including d’Azevedo’s own work, is the focus of the paper. Susan Lindstrom is an archaeologist whose Ph.D.. and subsequent research focuses on the same issue: her correspondence with d’Azevedo and her work are included in this collection.



XIII/1 “To Fish or Cut Bait: Missing the Boat to Washoe” by d’Azevedo. Three drafts, including an original read at the 1990 conference, a typed version with d’Azevedo’s subsequent notes, and a clean final version. Research notes for this paper are filed in the folder which follows. [1990].

XIII/2 Research notes for “Fish or Cut Bait.” Correspondence about and abstract of a symposium organized by Susan Lindstrom, “Recent Research in the Tahoe Sierra Region of the Western Great Basin.” 1990.

XIII/3 Correspondence with Susan Lindstrom, 1985-1996. Lindstrom compiled data in a letter to d’Azevedo in 1985 on submerged bedrock mortars at Lake Tahoe and other evidence for paleoenvironmental change for possible inclusion in the revised Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 11. d’Azevedo reviewed her Ph.D. proposal and completed version from 1986-1990. They have continued to work together on several subsequent projects but general correspondence related to research on fisheries and fishing practices is included here. Her letter and the 1990 draft of her paper from the GBAC conference that was eventually published in the Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology is included in the following folder.

XIII/4 References collected by d’Azevedo on fishing and fisheries. Arranged alphabetically by

author; includes notes by d’Azevedo.

    4/1 Bath, Joyce. “Pyramid Lake and Walker River Lacustrine Adaptions.” 1976. 

Dansi, Amie. “Analysis of Faunal Remains from Archaeological Sites 26Wal696, 26Wa1697, and 26Wa1698.” 1980.



    4/2-3 Bath, Joyce. “Northern Paiute Lacustrine Adaptations, Pyramid and Walker Lakes.” [Expanded version of her 1976 paper]. 1978.

    4/4 d’Azevedo. “Washoe” excerpt from Handbook of North American Indians.

Elston, Robert G. “Archaeological Site 26Wa1444: an Intensive Evaluation and Data Recovery Plan.” 1986.

    4/5 Fowler, Catherine and Joyce Bath. “Pyramid Lake Northern Paiute Fishing: The Ethnographic Record.” Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, vol. 3, no. 2.

Fowler, Catherine. “Food-named Groups Among the Northern Paiute of the Great Basin of North America: An Ecological Interpretation.”

    4/6 Lindstrom, Susan. “Great Basin Fisherfolk: Optimal Diet Breadth Modeling of the Truckee River Prehistoric Subsistence Fishery.” 1990.

    4/7 Rhode, David. “Two Nineteenth-Century Reports of Great Basin Subsistence Practices.” In Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, vol. 10, no. 2, 1988.

        Stanley, John. “Research Projects in the Sierra Nevada, 1979-1970.” 1974.

        Sutton, Mark Q. “A Consideration of Insects as Resources in the Aboriginal Great Basin.” 1986.

    4/8 Tuohy, Donald. “Pyramid Lake Fishing: The Archaeological Record.” 1990.

    4/9 Van Winkle, Barrick. “Economic Exchange and Trade in the Great Basin.” 1976.

    4/10 Publications referenced.

XIII/5/1-2     Materials collected by d’Azevedo for the Washoe Indian Fish and Game case (see also 97-04, Series III/4)

XIII/6     Note cards. 50 index cards of notes and quotations from reference materials and anecdotes from colleagues and Washoe contacts about Washoe fishing. Includes d’Azevedo’s thoughts about the problem of lack of archaeological evidence for fishing as posed by Lindstrom and provides insight into how he developed his paper.


99-39/XIV Series XIV. Maps: Washoe Territory and Land Use Issues, Place Names. Retained by Donor.


99-39/XV Series XV. Correspondence. Retained by Donor.


99-39/XVI Series XVI. Audio Tapes. 1954-1977; bulk, 1954. 3.5 cu. ft. RESTRICTED

d’Azevedo, as part of the field work for his graduate studies program, recorded many songs and stories of the Washoe Indians at Woodfords and Markleeville, California; and Reno Colony and the Washoe Ranch near Gardnerville, Nevada. Most of the tapes were recorded in 1954.

This series is restricted according to the terms of Dr. d’Azevedo’s gift agreement. Field notes with details of personal life or interviews of individuals, in either written or audio form, are closed until the year 2010. Permission to use these types of materials must be obtained from the donor, Warren L. d’Azevedo.

d’Azevedo made these recordings using reel-to-reel tapes. Nine of these tapes have been copied onto cassettes. It is the policy of the Special Collections Department to only allow use of copy tapes (cassettes); researchers with permission to use the tapes must pay to have cassette copies made of the reel-to-reel tapes.

These tapes are arranged in donor’s original order; some reels may be duplicates of others in this series. Copy tapes made for use of researchers are filed in boxes at the end of the series (box 14). The information below was taken from the original tape boxes, supplied by d’Azevedo. Dr. d’Azevedo numbered his tapes in series but duplicated some numbers. Original numbers are listed in parenthesis (). Unless otherwise noted, recordings were made by d’Azevedo.



XVI/1 Singing and story telling sessions, excerpted from other tapes. (Reel I). Copied to cassette tape.

    -Roy James: two handgame songs. Sept. 22, 1955. -Isolated Washoe words and phrases. Sept. 17, 1956. -Roy James: life and times; establishment of Dresslerville. Sept. 17, 1956. -Monster Baby Tale: two experiences with bears.

XVI/2 Hank Pete - stories and songs. (Reel II) Copied.

    -Story of a man with one leg (saw mo mo: story of wi :gi dopo).

    -Handgame songs.

XVI/3 Washoe Songs. (Reel III). Copied.

    -Group of women singers from Dresslerville, NV, interspersed with discussion. Nov. 12, 1955.

    -Frank Morgan

    - Washoe words. Sept. 16, 1956.

XVI/4 Informal song session

    - Peyotists. (Reel IV). Copied.

    -Leonard Moore and Barton John - songs; and Leonard Moore, voice and rattle. Nov. 11, 1955.

    -Brenda Moore - songs (Brenda is Leonard Moore’s daughter). Nov. 22, 1955.

XVI/5 Peyote songs. (Unnumbered reel 1). Copied.

    -“Lawrence and Reuben - Peyote songs.” Includes Eugene Blackbear. 1970s. Recorded at Carson Colony by Brenda or Leonard Moore.

XVI/6 Peyote songs. (Unnumbered reel 2). Copied

    -Eugene Blackbear - Peyote songs. 1970s? Recorded at Carson Colony by Leonard Moore.

XVI/7 Washoe Peyotist narratives. (Unnumbered reel 3). Copied.

    -Washoe Peyotist narratives (from Straight with the Medicine, spoken by Warren L. d’Azevedo). April 15, 1973.

XVI/8 Allan Merriam. (Unnumbered reel 4). Copied. -Allan Merriam - ersatz Peyote songs. ca 1970s.



XVI/9 Farewell meeting for the d’Azevedo family by Washoe elders and others, Dresslerville Church, Dresslerville, NV. (Unnumbered reel 5). Copied.

    -Hank Pete speech of greeting; and songs by Hank Pete, Clara Frank, Gladys Walker, and others. Dec. 29, 1955.

XVI/10 Carson Colony handgame competition, Carson Colony, NV. (Reel 1). Copied. -Washoe Women’s Team (Freda Smoky, Eleanor Frank, Carolyn Filmore, Gladys Kiser) vs Oregon Warm Springs Paiute Team. Oct. 30, 1964.

XVI/11 Carson Colony handgame competition, Carson Colony, NV (Reel 2). Copied. -Washoe and Paiute Teams vs Reese River Shoshone Team vs Warm Springs and Schurz Teams. Oct. 31, [probably 1964].

XVI/12 Carson Colony handgame competition. Oct. 31, 1964. (Reel 3). Copied.

XVI/13 Unidentified. (Reel 4). Copied.

XVI/14 Washoe terms recorded at Sorenson’s Resort near Woodfords. Songs recorded at Earl James’ cabin at Woodfords on a rebuilt Magnacorder loaned by KBFA in Berkeley, CA. (Reel 1).

    -Roy James: tale of ax July 26, 1954. -Washoe terms. July 27, 1954.

    -Barton John: Peyotist songs. July 28, 1954.

XVI/15 Songs: Roy James, Barton John, Franklin. July 28, 1954. (Reel 2A). Reel missing; on cassette in possession of d’Azevedo.

XVI/16 Continuation of XVI/15. (Reel 2B). Recorded at Sorenson’s’s Resort near Woodfords.

    -George Snooks and Barton John: “The Tale of the Man Who Got Drunk.” July 28, 1954.

    -Tales by Barton John: Aug. 11, 1954:

    -The Delegation to Washington (and discussion with Warren L. d’Azevedo)

    -The Two Friends.

    -Fly Saucers (and discussion with d’Azevedo)



XVI/17/1-2 Roy James: life history, no. 1 of 6 tapes. Last comment at end of tape: “There was not one red penny for mother.” July 27, 1954. Recorded on a PTGBN Magnacorder loaned by KBFA in Berkeley, CA., at Sorenson’s Resort. 2 tapes, both reel-to-reel; one appears to be a copy. (Reel 3A)

XVI/18/1-2 Roy James, life history, no. 2 of 6 tapes. July 27, 1954. Last comment on tape: “Roy’s family’s attitude re peyotism.” Recorded at Shell Resort near Markleeville. 2 tapes, both reel-to-reel, one appears to be a copy. (Reel 3B).

XVI/19/1-2 Roy James, life history, no. 3 of 6 tapes. Aug. 9, 1954. Last comment: “Every man to his own opinion.” Recorded at Sorenson’s Resort. 2 tapes, one a copy. Machinery noise on first one-third of tape. (Reel 4A)

XVI/20/1-2 Roy James, life history, no. 4 of 6 tapes. Aug. 9, 1954. Beginning of tape: comparing the Native American Church to old Indian ways. Last comment: Christian church and Bible vs Native American Church. Recorded at Sorenson’s Resort. 2 tapes, one a copy. (Reel 4B)

XVI/21/1 Roy James, life history, no. 5 of 6 tapes. Aug. 9, 1954. Beginning of tape: “did anyone in your family go to a Christian church?” Last commend: “About the Washoe Ranch, $1,500 disappeared.” Recorded at Sorenson’s Resort. 2 tapes, one a copy in box 10. (Reel 5A)


BOX 10

XVI/21/2 Copy of tape XVI/21/1

XVI/22/1-2 Roy James, life history, no. 6 of 6. Aug. 9, 1954. Beginning of tape: About the Washoe Ranch. End of tape: Delbert: “Wild one, just like me.” Recorded at Sorenson’s Ranch. 2 tapes, one a copy. (Reel 5B)

XVI/23 Roy James: tales (Weasel and Water Baby with discussion of story). Aug. 9, 1954. Recorded at Sorenson’s Resort. (Reel 6).

XVI/24 Barton John tales. Aug. 11, 1954. Recorded at Sorenson’s Resort. (Reel 7)

    -wilu kushkush and the Water Baby.

    -discussion of Water Babies.

    -wilu kushkush Retrieves a Boy’s Life.

    -The Creation of Man.

    -Discussion of creation and the Creator.

XVI/25 Barton John: life history (tape 1 of 6. This series is different from tapes 17-22). Aug. 11, 1954. End of tape: “First time in a tepee meeting with a sick relative.” Recorded at Sorenson’s Resort. (Reel 8A).

XVI/26 Barton John, life history (tape 2 of 6). Aug. 11, 1954. Beginning of tape: “His first tepee meeting.” End of tape: “God.” Recorded at Sorenson’s Resort. (Reel 8B).

XVI/27 Barton John, life history (tape 3 of 6). Aug. 12, 1954. Beginning of tape: Question: “Do any of your family go to a Christian church?” End of tape: “Judgement day; death; next world.” Recorded at Sorenson’s Resort. (Reel 9A)

XVI/28 Barton John, life history (tape 4 of 6). Aug. 12, 1954. Beginning of tape: “Where did peyote come from?” End of tape: “Washoe aspirations, future.” Recorded at Woodfords. (Reel 9B).


BOX 11

XVI/29 Barton John, life history (tape 5 of 6). Aug. 12, 1954. Recorded at Sorenson’s Resort. (Reel 10).

XVI/30 Barton John, life history (tape 6 of 6). Aug. 12, 1954. Recorded at Sorenson’s Resort. Beginning of tape: the tribal claim. End of tape: personal aspirations, the good life. (Reel 11).

XVI/31 Meeting in Reno at Connie Hunter’s house at Reno Colony, Reno, to discuss Washoe tribal history and land claim (tape 1 of 3). Aug. 12, 1954. End of tape: relations with Miwok. This tape has been transcribed (but is not included in this collection). (Reel 12A).

XVI/32 Meeting to discuss Washoe tribal history (tape 2 of 3). Aug. 12, 1954. Beginning of tape: Mrs. Barrington recounts the “Potato War.” End of tape: Mr. Barrington describes Washoe reaction to the first whites, “Beards and pale faces,” “Washoe didn’t need to beg.” (Reel 12B).

XVI/33 -Meeting to discuss Washoe tribal history (tape 3 of 3). Aug. 12, 1999. Beginning of tape: Mr. Barrington discussing white science and religion in conflict. End of meeting.

    -Meeting of Washoe at Woodfords to discuss tribal history and land claim at Earl James cabin in Woodfords. Aug. 13, 1954. Also discussed hanalelti and palew [[biseu = a mountain southeast of Sunny flat northeast of Wellington.]. This tape has been transcribed (but the transcription is not included in this collection). (Reel 13A).

XVI/34 Woodfords Washoe meeting, continued. Aug. 13, 1954. Beginning of tape: Eddie rube offers taba wa’ta. End of tape: George Snooks talks of Poker Jim and white troops. End of meeting. This tape has been transcribed (but is not included in this collection). (Reel 13B).

XVI/35 George Snooks: stories. Aug. 13, 1954. Recorded at Sorenson’s Resort. (Reel 14A) -End of the world.

    -The old lady and the wolf.

    -Lizard and Coyote.

    -Lizard and Mouse.

    -Discussion: the Washoe and oxen tracks (George Snooks), “George Snooks,” the origin of the Washoe (Leonard Moore).

    -Roy James stories. Aug. 15, 1954.

    -Mr. Coyote and goldfish.

    -Mr. Coyote and kingfish.

    -Mr. Coyote catching ducks.

    -Mr. Coyote catching abalone.

    -End of tape: Coyote gets drowned.

XVI/36 Roy James stories, con’t. Aug. 15, 1954. Recorded at Sorenson’s Resort. Discussion: Abalone, Roy’s’s wife Maisie’s questions, Mr. Coyote and Wildcat (discussion of story), the Washoe and the tourists (discussion of story), old times, conclusion of sessions. (Reel 14B)

XVI/37 George Snooks and Leonard Moore: tall tales of hunting. Aug. 16, 1954. Recorded at the Washoe Ranch near Gardnerville. (Reel 15A).


BOX 12

XVI/38     Interview with Frank Morgan, National Science Foundation Field School, Dept. Of Anthropology, Univ. Of Nevada, Reno: Washoe kin terms, family history, and discussion with field crew. June 17, 1965. (Unnumbered, 1 of 3 reels. Reels 2 & 3 were not transferred with this reel but consist of the same interview, same date.)

XVI/39-42 Frank Morgan: life history. Aug. 17, 1977. (Reels I, II, III, IV)

XVI/43     Washoe uwiya and handgame songs, Dresslerville, Nev. Washoe songs: singers, Clara Frank, Bertha Holbrook, with Tina, Lisa, and Eleanor. Nov. 13, 1955. (Unnumbered reel).

XVI/44     Washoe voices and speeches. Recorded by Veronica Pataki during filming Washoe. Donated to Dr. William Jacobsen for language study. Oct. 1968. (Unnumbered reel).

XVI/45     George Snooks, stories: Coyote and the Two Bears. 1970s? (Unnumbered reel).


BOX 13

XVI/46 Washoe songs: songs by Hank Pete and Duman Fred. Nov. 28, 1968. Recorded by George Rich at Woodfords, Calif. (Unnumbered reel).

XIV/47-49 Songs by Johnny Wager. Nov. 30, 1955. Recorded by Dr. William Jacobsen, Jr. (Reels 1-3).

XIV/50 Songs by Johnny Wager (complete set on one reel). Re-recorded by Warren L. D’Azevedo - copy of tapes 47-49 above. (Unnumbered reel).