Skip to Main Content

Manuscript Finding Aid

A Guide to the Papers of
Margaret M. Wheat
Collection No. 83-24

This collection was partially processed and arranged through funds granted by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, 1983

Margaret M. Wheat, 1908-1988

Margaret Marean Wheat was born September 9, 1908 in Fallon, Nevada. She received her education in Fallon and at the University of Nevada, Reno, where she studied geology. Recognized as a geologist and an anthropologist, her field experiences ranged from association with the U.S. Geological Survey to cave sitter at Winnemucca Lake, protecting the site from vandals. She worked as an archaeological field worker for the Nevada State Museum and also on water resources projects for the Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada, Reno. A special interest in the Ichthyosaur area in central Nevada involved her in the Nevada State Park System, and she served on the Nevada State Park Commission and on the Nevada Ichthyosaur Park Board between 1953 and 1960.

A major portion of Mrs. Wheat's research time was devoted to the Northern Paiute Indians. Recording and photographing these people, their arts, and life ways resulted in the book, Survival Arts of the Primitive Paiutes, published in 1967 by the University of Nevada Press. A grant from the Fleischmann Foundation to the Foresta Institute enabled Wheat to continue her work among the Paiutes; from 1968-1971 and 1972-1974 she made approximately 150 audio recordings of her elderly Paiute friends discussing their life ways, legends, and tribal history. She also did extensive photography among the Paiutes and was involved in the production of a film documenting their customs. Segments of the film footage were incorporated into "Tule Technology: Northern Paiute Uses/Marsh Resources in Western Nevada," by the Smithsonian Institution Office, Folklife Programs.

In 1980, Margaret Wheat received an honorary doctorate of science degree from the University of Nevada, Reno. She resided in Fallon, Nevada, until her death August 28, 1988.


Scope and Content

The Margaret M. Wheat papers consist of 6.5 cubic feet of records, approximately 172 audio tapes, several thousand feet of movie film, and several thousand photographic prints and negatives. Dating from 1879-1981, the collection was donated to the Special Collections Department by Mrs. Wheat between 1980 and 1984; an additional gift of S.R. Marean correspondence and manuscript drafts of Survival Arts of the Primitive Paiutes was donated by Mrs. Wheat's daughter, Sylvia J. Jesch in 1990. There are no restrictions on use of the collection other than citing the collection and donor names when materials are used for publication.

The Wheat papers are a reflection of Wheat's professional life as a geologist and ethnographer; there are no personal papers in the collection. The papers were divided into five series: research files, Nevada State Parks, Nevada Indians, tapes and tapescripts, and photographs and films. The photographs and films were transferred to the photo archives section of the Special Collections Department. Most printed materials such as professional journals and books were also transferred; the front cover of each such item was xeroxed and placed in designated folders within each series and the original materials were placed in either the Special Collections book stacks or transferred to the Gifts and Exchange Department of the library.

The strength of this collection lies with the resources on the lifestyles of Northern Paiute Indians of Nevada. Wheat, a curious and eager observer, made many friends among elderly Paiute tribal members over the years and gradually won their confidence, so that she was able to make notes on their technology, photograph their lifestyle, and finally tape record their memories of customs and cultural practices that were fast disappearing. The results were two significant works: Survival Arts of the Primitive Paiutes, and a series of oral and film recordings which are found in this collection.

Wheat began her professional career during the early 1950s when she was studying the pluvial geology of Lake Lahontan. Some of the files found in series I, "Research Files" contain her papers on the subject, as well as those of her colleagues. Correspondence in this series documents her work in this field and that of budding geologists who wrote detailing their progress toward advanced degrees and asking for her advice. Letters from the 1950s also describe work she undertook for the Nevada State Museum as a field ethnologist, a period when she began to discover and conduct research about caves used by prehistoric communities.

Wheat was instrumental in persuading Dr. Charles L. Camp, paleontologist from the University of California, Berkeley, to begin excavation of ichthyosaur fossils discovered near Gabbs, Nevada. She was a member of the Nevada Ichthyosaur Park Board and the Nevada State Park Commission and collected extensive documentation pertaining to the sometimes acrimonious struggles to provide funds for Dr. Camp's work and to develop the site as a Nevada State Park. Her files labeled "Ichthyosaur Battle" contain original and xeroxed copies of correspondence, financial statements, invoices, Park Commission minutes, and notes designed, in her eyes, to keep the park alive and prevent the Commission from becoming a rubber stamp for Thomas W. Miller and Howard Squires, chair and director respectively, of the State Park Commission.

Many of the products of Wheat's intellectual curiosity about the Indians of Nevada may be found in Series III, "Indians." Among the items represented here are indexes and professional papers on linguistics. Many of the indexes were created in collaboration with Sven Liljeblad, a linguist at Idaho State University and later the University of Nevada-Reno. Wheat acquired a scrapbook compiled by J.D. Oliver, Superintendent of the Nevada Indian School in the early part of the twentieth century. Clippings in the scrapbook and from historical Nevada newspapers which Wheat amassed provided details on Nevada Indians used to further her own work, including an interest in Sarah Winnemucca. Wheat attended the Pyramid Lake Area Technical Group meetings; several files containing clippings, correspondence, and notes serve to remind the reader that her interest in Paiutes extended from prehistory to the present.

Among the more important files of this series are those about Jack Wilson, also known as Wovoka, who led the American Indian ghost dance movement. These files include a manuscript by Wheat about Ed Dyer, who had many contacts with Wilson; a manuscript by Dyer entitled "The Jack Wilson Story;" several articles and part of a thesis about Wilson; a transcript of an oral interview with Ed Wilson; and information about the Vidovich family members who were Jack Wilson's grandchildren.

Wheat began recording conversations with Paiute friends in the late 1950s when she was given a used wire spool tape recorder. She continued her recordings utilizing a reel to reel recorder in the late 1960s and 1970s through a grant from the Fleischmann Foundation to the Foresta Institute. Those recordings are now part of the Wheat papers, as are transcriptions made of a number of those original recordings and tapes. Approximately one-half of the transcriptions were made by Wheat; the others were made by Professor Catherine Fowler and her interns during 1991. The collection also contains indexes made of the recordings; indexes are both by name and by Human Resource Area File subject terms.The last series, "Photographs and Films" has been transferred to the photo archives section of the Special Collections Department. Many of the several thousand photographs were taken by Wheat, or by Rolly R. Ham and Laura E. Mills. A fuller description of this series can be found near the end of this collection guide. Copies of the film have been made on VHS video tape and are available for researcher use. These films were the raw materials from which the film "Tule Technology" was made.

Processed by: Lenore M. Kosso and Susan Searcy
Date: 1983; February 21, 1989

Conditions Governing Reproduction and Use

Copyright to the audio resources in the Margaret Wheat Papers is held by the Special Collections Department, University of Nevada-Reno Libraries and is provided here for educational purposes only. They may not be downloaded, reproduced, or distributed in any format without written permission of the Special Collections Deprtment, University of Nevada-Reno Libraries. Any attempt to circumvent the access controls placed on the files is a violation of United States and international copyright laws, and is subject to criminal prosecution.

The papers of Margaret M. Wheat are arranged into seven series:

I. Research Files

II. Nevada State Parks

III. Nevada Indians

IV. Tapes and Transcripts

V. Photographs and Films

VI. Correspondence of S.R. Marean

VII. Manuscript of Survival Arts of the Primitive Paiutes.


Series I. Research Files. 1914-1981.

This series contains research notes, correspondence, and reports on a variety of subjects, including geology of Nevada, anthropological associations, Nevada history, pluvial lakes of Nevada, Churchill County history, use of Wheat's slides in publications, Lake Lahontan, and earthquakes. These files are arranged roughly in alphabetical order following Wheat's original folder labels.

Box 1

1:1 Am Arcs (Amateur Archaeologists). Newsletter, conference programs. 1972-1976.

1:2-3 Anthropological Societies. Conference programs. 1956-1967.

1:4 Archaeology. (Notes on basketry.) 1914-1975.

1:5 Archaeology. Caves: Winnemucca and Falcon Hill. 1952-1978.

1:6 Archaeology. Winnemucca Cave correspondence. 1952-1953.

1:7-9 Correspondence (from students and colleagues). 1938-1971; n.d.

1:10 Correspondence. Nevada State Museum. 1952-1961.

1:11-12 Earthquakes. 1950s, 1965-1981.

1:13 Eugenia Clair Smith Foundation. Correspondence, clippings. 1955-1956.

1:14 Geology. "Report on Geologic-Geomorphic Setting of Argillic Horizon Study Sites in Western Nevada." By John W. Hawley. 1969.BOX 1

1:15 Historical. 1934-1953. Copies of the following:
-"True Stories of Old Rawhide" and "Ruins of a Mystery Village" from the Fallon Standard. 1939.
-"A Trip to Carson Valley" by O.B. Huntington.
-"The Travels of Jedediah Smith" by Maurice S. Sullivan. 1934.
-"Fremont's Memoirs - Nevada Treck [sic]."
-"The Life of Baron De Lahontan," from the Encyclopedia Britannica Library Research Service.
-Letter about Baron La Hontan from Americana Institute. 1953.

1:16 Historical. 1942-1947. Papers on the following:
-"Fremont's Routes Through Nevada." 1942.
-"The Mormons in Nevada, 1848-1880," by Byrd Sawyer. 1947.
-"Nevada colony, 1916-1918."

1:17 Historical. 1947. Papers on the following:
-Fallon High School, 1910-1933. List of all class members and addresses. [1947]
-"A Famous Ride," by Ethel G. Whitaker.
-Misc. research notes.
-"Riley Grannan's Last Adventure," by Sam C. Dunham.
-"A Huge Melon." 1947.

1:18 Historical. 1964. Papers on the following:
-"The Development of the Yuma Route Before 1846," by Jack D. Forbes. 1964.
-"Nevada's Outdoor Historical Heritage," by Jack D. Forbes. 1964.

1:19 Historical, misc:
-"Historical Stage Stops" by Eugene Lytle. 1927.
-Newspaper clippings.
-Cranston family trees.
-"The Pony Express (A Brief History)."
-Chronology for Nevada transportation history.
-"Historical Places on the Field Trip to Buffalo Canyon" by Gladys Crehore.BOX 1

1:20 Historical.
-"Tippah Springs" by M. Ream. 1940.
-Reviews/notes from books read: "Gold Seekers of '49" by Kimball Webster; and excerpts from the Journal of Parley Parker Pratt."

1:21 Historical: "Our Nevada, Land of Contrasts" by Ethelyn Coverston.

1:22 Historical: "My Playhouse was a Concord Coach" by May Helene Bacon Bogs. n.d.

1:23 Historical: "John (Jack) Sheehan." 1950.

1:24 Historical: "Transcription of Mr. and Mrs. Kyler and the Pyramid Lake." n.d.

1:25 Oil (in Nevada). Reports, clippings, photos, prospectus. ca 1950s.

1:26-27 "Pluvial Lakes of Nevada and Estimated Full Pluvial Climates" by M.D. Mifflin and M. Wheat. 1977.

1:28 INQUA [International Association for Quaternary Research] Field Conference. Guide book draft.


Box 2

2:1 Xeroxes of title pages of printed material removed from collection and placed in book stacks.

2:2 Newsclippings, "People - Non-Indians."

2:3-6 Churchill County chronological history; and index to The State (Unionville), Humboldt Register, The Silver State (Winnemucca), and Churchill County Eagle, 1871-1914. Articles about Paiutes, events, and, occasionally recipes.

2:7-11 Place Names of Nevada. Worksheets [from Carlson's manuscript?], critique of Carlson's mss, interview of Irving Sanford by M. Wheat on place names (1957), "Principles Underlying Domestic Place Name Decisions" by Meredith F. Burrill, correspondence (1952), research notes, and Contributions Toward a Flora of Nevada no. 29 (Index to Geographical Names, 1941).

2:12 Singer Education and Training Products. Correspondence regarding use of Wheat's slides. 1971-1972.

2:13 Toll roads (Nevada). Typescript notes on toll roads, ca 1861-1865.

2:14 University of Washington Press. Correspondence regarding use of Wheat's slides. 1970.

2:15 Water. Clippings, "Hydrographic Regions of Nevada" (1967), correspondence regarding the Carson River suit (1933).

2:16 Lahontan Dam Project. 1958-1977.

2:17 "Quaternary Tephrochronology of the Lake Lahontan Area, Nevada and California." Dissertation by Jonathan Ogden Davis. 1977.

2:18 Lake Lahontan.

2:19 Abstracts of papers presented at the Symposium on Problems of the Lake Lahontan Basin. 1958.

2:20 "Preliminary Studies of Lake Lahontan Features at Boot Hill, Pershing County, Nevada" by Margaret M. Wheat. Jan. 1961.

2:21 Lake Lahontan Symposium. Field trips: 1965 INQUA Great Basin-California, 1964; INQUA Calif. - Nev. (n.d.); G.S.A. field trip road logs, n.d.; Friends of the Pleistocene Rocky Mountain Section, 6th annual trip, Little Valley - Promontory Point, Utah, 1960; Friends of Pleistocene, Pacific Coast Section, Searles Valley, Calif., 1967.

2:22 Pleistocene.

2:23 Lake Lahontan: Geology - Magnetic Field. Correspondence, notes, clippings. 1955-1973.

2:24 Soils: Classification and Description, "Soil Stratigraphy: Principals, Applications..." thesis by Roger Barron Morrison. 1964.

2:25 Energy - Wind Power. 1974.

2:26 Deephole. Notes, xeroxed articles.


Box 3

3:1 Isostatic Loading Glaciation.

3:2 Western U.S.I.T.

3:3 Unlabeled worksheets.

3:4 Seismology. Programs for Seismology Society of America meetings. 1957, 1966, 1978.

3:5 Misc. articles:
-"It Happened in Genoa" by Dorothy Nafus Morrison.
-[Map cataloging] by unknown author.
-"Hydrology of the Basalt-Aquifer System" by Pat Glancy. n.d.

3:6 Xeroxes of publications placed in book stacks.


Series II. Nevada State Parks. 1954-1961.

Margaret Wheat generated, received, and collected these papers while serving on the Nevada Ichthyosaur Park Board and the Nevada State Parks Commission. A major portion of this material relates to the site near Gabbs, Nevada, where ichthyosaur fossils were discovered and subsequently excavated by Dr. Charles L. Camp, and to the efforts of Wheat and others to have the area declared a state park. Especially interesting is the documentation of the
controversy between Dr. Camp; Thomas W. Miller, chair of the State Park Commission; Howard Squires, director of the Commission; and Harold P. Newman, Ichthyosaur Park employee and member of the Nevada Ichthyosaur Park Board, which was collected by Wheat as "battle data." Other materials chronicle the creation of new parks such as Beowawe Geysers and the development of already established units such as Valley of Fire and Fort Churchill. Included are correspondence, newspaper clippings, meeting minutes and agendas, financial summaries, budgets, laws, regulations, reports, testimony, and parks and recreation printed background material from Nevada and California. Arranged chronologically by subseries.

Box 3

3:7-10 Ichthyosaur battle data. 1955-1958. Includes correspondence, legislation, clippings, copies of State Parks Commission minutes for July 20, 1956, and bylaws of the Nevada State Parks Commission (1956). Most of the original correspondence is from Dr. Camp to Wheat; a substantial amount of correspondence consists of copies of letters to and from Camp, Miller, Squires, and Newman.

3:11-18 Correspondence. 1955-1960. State Park Commission business, additional "Ichy Battle Data," letters concerning Wheat's appointment to the Park Commission, other state park sites, hiring a new Director of the Park Commission (1959), and letters from Director William J. Hart.

3:19 Notes. n.d.

3:20-22 Park Commission meeting minutes and agendas. 1956-1960.

3:23-24 Expenses and budget material. 1957-1961.

3:25 Laws and regulations. 1957-1959.

3:26 Reports and testimony. 1956-1960; 1965. Includes a "Feasibility Survey, Restoration of Historic Buildings, State of Nevada." 1960.

3:27 News releases and newsletters. 1959-1960.

3:28 Maps: Whittell land, Sand Harbor and special use permit. 1957. Drawing of ichthyosaur. n.d.

3:29 State Parks policy statements from other states. 1954-1959.

3:30 California State Parks printed material: reports, News and Views. 1959.

3:31 Outdoor recreation and conservation printed material. 1957-1960

3:32 Newspaper clippings. 1954-1960.


Series III. Indians. 1879-1971.

This series contains material collected by Wheat in her research on the Northern Paiute Indians of Nevada and is divided into subject files and indexes. The subject files contain clippings; copies of older correspondence between John T. Reid, Senator Tasker Oddie, and others; a bibliography on the subject; correspondence with Sven Liljeblad at Idaho State University; research on Sarah Winnemucca, Jack Wilson (Wovoka), and Wilson's grandsons, the Vidovichs; articles and notes on linguistics; a scrapbook compiled by J.D. Oliver, Superintendent of the Nevada Indian School; and extensive documentation on two grants from the Fleischmann Foundation to the Foresta Institute which enabled Wheat to tape oral interviews with Paiute elders. The indexes include a ethnographic glossary, and a number of linguistic indexes for English-Paiute, Paiute-English terms. Many of the latter were compiled by Sven Liljeblad, and include terms for plants, animals, and other elements in the Paiutes' natural habitat. Subject files are arranged alphabetically according to Wheat's file headings; indexes follow Wheat's original order.

Box 4

4:1 Bannock War. Xerox of the book The Bannock War of 1878 by George Francis Brimlow. [Removed from collection; Special Collections has a copy of this book in its book stacks.]

4:2a-b Bibliography.

4:3 Correspondence (copies) between John T. Reid, Senator Oddie and others. 1932-1933.

4:4 "Examples of subject matter" [for Wheat's book Survival Arts of the Northern Paiute?].

4:5-8 Fleischmann-Foresta Grant. 1962-1978. Correspondence regarding two grants for taped and filmed interviews of Paiutes, financial records, calendars, plan of work, grant applications, and interim reports.

4:9 Clippings.

4:10 Idaho State. 1970-1971.

4:11 Inter-Tribal Council. n.d. Notes on oral history project (financial accounting), manuscript on Sarah Winnemucca.

4:12a Linguistics. Includes two articles: "Linguistic Prehistory in the Great Basin" by Sydney M. Lamb (published and manuscript version); and "Comparative Vocabularies of North American Indians" by C. Hart Merriam.

4:12b Linguistics notebook.

4:13 "Mesquite: Lagniappe of the Desert" by John M. Belville. Draft reviewed by Wheat with her comments. Also "They Ate the Scenery" by Belville.

4:14 Misc. (genealogical notes).

4:14b Mono Dialects classification.

4:15 Movie expenses. Notes on cost of producing ethnographic film; list of subject matter and descriptions of each subject included in the film. n.d.

4:15b Music

4:16 "Non-Paiute: Folio K." "Death of Burton Wungnema-Hopi."

4:17 Notes on ethnology. Newsletters by various tribes; work plan for project.

4:18 J.D. Oliver (Supt. of the Nevada Indian School): scrapbook. Clippings about Paiutes, ca 1917; and letter to Oliver from the Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, 1911.

4:18b Oliver scrapbook transcription.

4:19 Outline of Cultural Materials by George P. Murdock et al. 1961.

4:20 Paiute lexicon. Correspondence from Sven Liljeblad. 1969.

4:21 Paiute research.

4:22 Peterson Pancho book.

4:23-25 Pyramid Lake. 1956-1961. Clippings, correspondence regarding the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, notes from meetings of the Pyramid Lake Area Technical Group, notice of sale of land leases at the lake, and articles from the New Yorker.

4:26 Reese River Reveille clippings about Indians.

4:27 Statement of Hastings Pancho and the wife of Dick Sampson, 1929. Drawing of room arrangement for Paiute curing ceremony.

4:28 Stick census. 1879-1880. Census of Indians of Nevada, transcribed by Wheat in 1952.

4:29-30 Wilson, Jack "Wovoka." Manuscript "The Ed Dyer Story" by Wheat; correspondence from Dyer; research notes; interviews; "The Jack Wilson Story" by Edward A. Dyer; portions of a thesis "The Doctrine of the Resurrection of the Dead" (Ghost Dance); transcript of Ed Wilson's oral interview; and "Wavoka" article by Grace Dangberg which appeared in the Nevada Historical Society Quarterly, Summer 1968.

4:31 Vidovich. Newspaper clippings about Harlyn and Daniel Vidovich, notes, and a portion of the thesis "Factionalism in a Northern Paiute Tribe as a Consequence of the Indian Reorganization Act" by Michael Hittman.

4:32 Notebook "Words from Kay and Sven." [Nearly empty.]

4:33 Notebook: journal.

4:34 Notebook: "People, Places, Things."


Box 5


-Ethnographic glossary.
-Plants: arranged by botanical name followed by its Paiute equivalent.
-Plants: alphabetical by botanical name followed by its Paiute term.
-"Dead Card File."


Box 6

"Indian Words with Sven [Liljeblad]." English term, followed by Paiute equivalent. Unarranged.


Box 7

Index: "Indian Words with Sven [Liljeblad]." Arranged by gross subject such as plants, animals, reptiles, rocks, fish, birds, and insects.


Box 8

Index: "Sven's Words." Northern Paiute word list with English translation. Arranged alphabetically by Paiute word.


Box 9

[File box originally labeled "File Behind H.R.A.F."] These boxes include the following six indexes:

"Personal File." Arranged alphabetically by name of individual; for each name, tape and tapescript numbers where the name is mentioned are given.BOX 9

"Subject Index" using Human Resource Area File (H.R.A.F.) terms for interviews: arranged alphabetically/numerically by H.R.A.F. index terms and numbers. Contains newspaper clippings, notes from oral interviews, photos (pasted on cards) of people and activities, some of which were used in Wheat's book, Survival Arts....


Box 10 (Con't from Box 9)

"Non-Paiute." Using H.R.A.F. terms, an index to activities on non-Paiute Indians in Nevada, abstracted from newspaper clippings and other printed, contemporary sources.

"Personal File." Similar to personal file above.

"Photographs." Images of food gathering activities or tools, pasted on cards describing activities/subjects, and providing date and place of image capture.

Research notes on a variety of Paiute subjects.


Series IV. Tapes and Transcripts.

The Foresta Institute was the recipient of grant funds from the Fleischmann Foundation in 1968 and 1977, the purposes of which were to record the memories of the elder Paiute generation. Margaret Wheat was the principal researcher for this project; the results of her work were some 171 audio tapes and several thousand feet of movie film documenting Paiute history, genealogy, technology, food gathering techniques, and survival arts. About one-third of the audio tapes were transcribed and indexed by personal name and H.R.A.F. subject terms. In addition, work status sheets and tape indexes provide
intellectual access to the recordings. Tape transcripts are divided into two sections: the first is arranged numerically by tape number and the second follows Wheat's original order which grouped two or more tapescripts by their subject or by the name of the interviewee; these tapescripts are duplicate copies of the originals.

Box 11

Subject index to tape transcripts.


Box 12

12:1 Tape project status sheets. Control sheets listing tape number, name of interviewee, date, place, size of tape, and whether tapescript was made.

12:2-3 H.R.A.F. index to tapescripts. Arranged alphabetically by index term; also included is a key to initials used for names in tapescripts.

12:4-5 Tape index. Arranged numerically by tape number; entries include name of interviewee, location and circumstances of interview, and notes about subject content. Also included in front of each volume is a list of tapes and subjects, with notations as to date and place of recording and whether the original tape was copied.

12:6 Index to cassettes, Indians-Personal. Arranged numerically by tape number; each entry lists name of subject, date of interview, and subjects discussed.

12:7-46 Tapescripts. Note: Files of original tapescripts also may include rough drafts as well as finished copy. Interviewer for each tapescript appears to have been Margaret Wheat. Original tapescripts are arranged by tape number; copies are in Wheat's original order.

Tape #, Name(s) of Interviewee(s):

12:7 18, Alice Steve, Wuzzie George, Margaret (hereafter referred to as "Wheat").

12:8 19, Alice Steve, Wuzzue George, Wheat, Dave Marshall.

12:9 20, Wuzzie George, Alice Steve, Wheat, Dave Marshall.

12:10 22A, Alice Steve, Wuzzie George, Wheat, Tom Trelease, Ira LaRivers

12:11 22B, Wuzzie George, Alice Steve, Wheat, Ira LaRivers, Tom Trelease, Buck Wheeler.

12:12 23, Alice Steve, Wuzzie George, Wheat, Ira LaRivers, Tom Trelease.

12:13 24, Alice Steve, Wuzzie George, Wheat, Dave Marshall.

12:14 26, Wuzzie George, Wheat.

12:15 27, Wuzzie George, Wheat.

12:16 28, Wuzzie George, Wheat.

12:17 29, Wuzzie George, Wheat

12:18 30, Wuzzie George, Lily Shaw, Dora John, Wheat.

12:19 31, Wuzzie George, Wheat.

12:20 32, Wuzzie George, Wheat.

12:21 33, Nina Winnemucca, Mabel Wright Paulina.

12:22 35, Mabel Wright Paulina.

12:23-26 40-43, Tim Hooper

12:27 45, Jenny? and ?

12:28 46, Lidia Dunn, Mabel Wright Paulina, Nina Winnemucca, Bert Johnny, Wheat.

12:29 47, Herbert Pancho, Mabel Wright Paulina.

12:30 50, Mabel Wright Paulina.

12:31 51, Alice Steve, Sven Liljeblad, Wheat.

12:32 52A, Wuzzie George, Ethelyn Coverton, Wheat.

12:33 52B, Wuzzie George, Ethelyn Coverton, Wheat.

12:34 58, Wuzzie George, Jimmie George, Wheat.

12:35 59, (Pt. II&III) Wuzzie George, Jimmie George, Wheat.

12:36 62, Wuzzie George, Jimmie George, Wendell Wheat

12:37 63, Wuzzie George, Edna George, Wheat.

12:38 67, Bessie, Wheat.

12:39 68, Lucy Kinsman, Sidney Lamb.

12:40 72, Mabel Wright Paulina.

12:41-43 74, Andy Vidovich, Alice Vidovich, Dolly Vidovich.

12:44 77, Birdie Dave, Helen Williams, Rosie Moose.

12:45 78, Essie Allen, Wheat, Iona Byers, Maria ____.

12:46 79, Wuzzie George, Wheat, unidentified man.


Box 13

13:1-55 Tapescripts. Note: Files of original tapescripts also may include rough drafts as well as finished copy. Interviewer for each tapescript appears to have been Margaret Wheat. Original tapescripts are arranged by tape number; copies are in Wheat's original order.

Tape #, Name(s) of Interviewee(s):

13:1-2 80, Wuzzie George, Wheat.

13:3-4 81, Wuzzie George, Wheat (and unidentified woman on tape 3).

13:5 82, Pinenut Festival, Schurz, Nevada.

13:6 83, Pinenut Prayer.

13:7 84, Wuzzie George.

13:8 85, Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina.

13:9 86, Wuzzie George, Wheat.

13:10 88, Mabel Wright Paulina, Katie Frazier.

13:11 89, Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina.

13:12 90, Andy Vidovich, Dan Vidovich, Dolly Vidovich.

13:13 91, Mabel Wright Paulina.

13:14 93, Nina Winnemucca, Mabel Wright Paulina.

13:15 95, Helen Williams.

13:16 96, Andy Vidovich, Dolly Gerow Vidovich.

13:17 97, Helen Williams, Birdie Dave, Rosie Moose.

13:18 98, Helen Williams.

13:19 100, Wuzzie George, Ray Alcorn, Wheat, unidentified man.

13:20 100, Andy Vidovich.

13:21 101, Mabel Wright Paulina, Daisy Aster.

13:22 102, Mabel Wright Paulina, Mamie Pancho Smith John.

13:23 103, Birdie Dave, Helen Williams.

13:24 104, Helen Williams, Birdie Dave.

13:25 105, Helen Williams.

13:26 106, Birdie Dave, Helen Williams.

13:27 107, Helen Williams.

13:28 110, Nellie Emm.

13:29 113, Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright Paulina.

13:30 114, Ruth Houghton, Mabel Wright Paulina, Ethel O'Neil.

13:31 115, Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright, Katie Frazier, Ruth [Coleman], Wheat.

13:32 116, Nellie Emm.

13:33 117, Mabel Wright Paulina, Ethel O'Neil.

13:34 118, Wuzzie George, Sven Liljeblad, Astrid Liljeblad, Wheat.

13:35 119, Wuzzie George, Sven Liljeblad, Wheat.

13:36 120, Wuzzie George, Sven Liljeblad, Astrid Liljeblad, Wheat.

13:37 121, Wuzzie George, Jimmie [George].

13:38 131, Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina, Daisy Aster.

13:39 132, Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina, Minnie Houten.

13:40 133, Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright Paulina.

13:41 136, Ethel O'Neil, Josie French, Mabel Wright Paulina.

13:42 137, Katie Frazier.

13:43 138, Helen Williams, Beth Crittenden Swartzman.

13:44 141, Marian Henry Paddy, Ada Natches Henry.

13:45 142, [Edna Jones].

13:46 143, Wuzzie George, Winona Thomas.

13:47 144, Edna Jones, Wuzzie George.

13:48 147, Dr. Ralph Payne, Mrs. Payne.

13:49 148, Wuzzie George, Tootsie Bowser.

13:50 149, Helen Williams.

13:51 151, Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina.

13:52 165, [Wuzzie George].

13:53-54 Folio 1 - Stories abstracted from taped interviews.

13:55 No # - Paiute stories from tapes.

13:56-64 Duplicate copies of tapescripts, arranged in Wheat's order.

13:56 35, Mabel Wright Paulina.

13:57 151, 85, Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina, Ruth; 88, 89, Houghton, Ethel O'Neil, Wheat; 114.

13:58 144, 81, Edna Jones, Wuzzie George, Tootsie Bowser; 148, 84, Winona Thomas; 143, 80.

13:59 82, 83, Pinenut festival and prayer.

13:60 95, 103, Helen Williams, Birdie Davis, Rosie Moose; 97, 149.

13:61 33, 46, Nina Winnemucca, Mabel Wright Paulina, Lidia; 91, 93, Dunn, Bert Johnny.

13:62-63 Folio #1.

13:64 74, Andy Vidovich.


Box 13b

13b:1 90, 96, Andy Vidovich, Don Vidovich, Dolly Vidovich; 100 Wheat.

13b:2 77, 98, Birdie Dave, Helen Williams, Rosie Moose; 104, 106 Beth Crittenden Swartzman; 107, 138.

13b:3 47, 50, Herbert Pancho, Mabel Wright Paulina, Ethel; 72, 136 O'Neil, Jose French.

13b:4 101, 102 Mabel Wright Paulina, Daisy Aster, Mamie Pancho Smith John.

13b:5 113, 117, Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright Paulina, Katie; 131-133 Frazier, Daisy Aster, Minnie Houten.

13b:6 110, 116 Nellie Emm.

13b:7-14 The following are rough pencil drafts of tapescripts.

13b:7 140, 86, Mabel Wright, Jean Smith, Wuzzie George.

13b:8 148, 97, Wuzzie George, Tootsie Bowser; Helen; 143, Williams, Birdie Dave, Rosie Moose, Joline Williams, Wheat; Wuzzie George, Winona Thomas, Wheat.

13b:9 90, 100 Andy Vidovich, Dan Vidovich, Dolly Vidovich, Wheat; Andy Vidovich, Wheat.

13b:10 50, 73, Mabel Wright Paulina; Mabel Wright Paulina; 135, 152 Wheat; Daisy Aster, Mabel Wright Paulina, Wheat; Harrison Frazier.

13b:11 91, 111, Mabel Wright Paulina, Wheat; Edna Jones; 11, 140 Wheat; Inman; Jean Smith, Wheat.

13b:12 89, 149, Katie Frasier, Mabel Wright, Wheat; Helen; 154? Williams, Wheat; Marion Paddy, Barney Miller.

13b:13 [19] No. # [note attached states "tape which was in #19 box" - appears to be Wuzzie George].

13b:14 No # Tim Hooper interview [possibly tapes #40-43].



Taped interviews were recorded by Wheat in several formats. Prior to the Foresta grant, Wheat used wire spool recorders. Most of the grant interviews were done on either 7" or 5" reel to reel tapes and duplicates were made on same size tape. Later, additional interviews of non-Paiutes were made on cassette tapes, and duplicates of older 7" tapes were also done on cassettes. Finally, Wheat had duplicate tapes made of the wire recordings, most of which are on reel to reel tapes. The listing below includes information on whether a duplicate was made, whether a wire spool was copied onto another format, and whether a tapescript is available. The policy of the Special Collections Department is to allow use of copies of tapes only; if a tape currently exists only in its original format, a cassette copy will be made at the patron's expense before access will be granted.


Box 14


Tape #, Transcript Subject:

1-7, John (Jack) Sheehan. 7" reels, copied. Dubbed from wire spools #11-19.

8, Cuyler. 7" reel, copied.


Box 15

Tape #, Transcript Subject:

9, Cye Cox. 7" reel, copied.

10, Sanford and Sheehan. 7" reel, copied.

11, Inman. 7" reel, copied.

12, Danielson, Marean. 7" reel, copied.

13, Gardner. 7" reel, copied.

14, Gardner. 7" reel, copied.

no #, Professional (anthropologist) discussing artifacts.

no #, Sheehan VIII, group singing.

no #, Ichthyosaur State Park meeting. 1955.

no #, Apparently field notes, copy of a letter to Casey.

no #, Van Arsdale, perhaps music or chanting.


Box 16

Tape #, Transcript Subject:

15-17, Ed Dyer, 1957. 7" reels, copied.

18, T Alice [Steve?], Wuzzie George. Dubbed from wire spools #2 & 19. Cassette copy.

19, T Alice Steve, Wuzzie George. Dubbed from wire spools #5 & 8. Cassette copy.

19a, Alice Steve and Wuzzie George. From note on original box, this tape was to be transcribed, then erased.

20, T Dave Marshall, Alice Steve. Dubbed from wire spools #8 & 18. Cassette copy.


Box 17

Tape #, Transcript Subject:

21, Nixon Council, May 14, 1960.

22a&b, T Wuzzie George and Alice Steve at the Univ. of Nevada Biology Dept. with Tom Trelease. [Tapes are marked "Steve, George (Wuzzie?) UN 9 March 52]. Dubbed from wire spool #22.

23, T Alice Steve, Wuzzie George U. of N. Dubbed from wire spool #20. 7" reel and cassette copies.

24, T Alice Steve, Wuzzie George, Dave Marshall. 7" reel, copied. Dubbed from wire spools #4 & 7.

25-25a, Edna Jones at Schurz. Dubbed from wire spool #24. Tape 25A copied on 7" reel.

26-29, T Wuzzie George, 2/27/57. Dubbed from wire spools #31, 34, 35. 7" reel copy.

30-30a, T Wuzzie George, Lily Shaw, Dora John. 7" reel, copied.

31, T Wuzzie George, 2/27/57. Dubbed from wire spool #35. 7" reel, copied.


Box 18

Tape #, Transcript Subject:

32, T Wuzzie George, Jean Hurd (rabbit drive, land, camps, population). Dubbed from wire spool #35. 7" reel, copied.

33, T Nina Winnemucca, Mabel Wright Paulina. 7" reel, copied.

34, Mabel Wright Paulina.

35, T Mabel Wright Paulina and Wheat en route to Rye Patch, June 3, 1964. 7" reel, copied.

36, No tape. Status sheet indicates that content was songs-Admission Day.

37, A. Winnemucca and Tippy Wadsworth, songs.

38, McCann, Ike Boney, Eva, Wuzzie, songs.

39, Willie Jones songs, 1957.

40-43, T Tim Hooper, recorded in Tonopah.

44, Edna Jones and Wuzzie George. Death, moving house, church auction, snow and porcupine legends. Re: program at U of N, May 1-2. Schurz, May 6, 1964.

45, T Tim Hooper, women talk.

46, T Lidia Dunn, Mabel Wright Paulina, Nina Winnemucca, Bert Johnny, Margaret Wheat.


Box 19

Tape #, Transcript Subject:

47, T Herbert Pancho and Mabel Wright Paulina, May 1964.

48, Mabel Wright Paulina. Original peyote tape, May 1964.

49, Mabel Wright Paulina, May 1964.

50, T No tape. Mabel Wright Paulina (wonderful dream).

51, T Alice Steve, Sven Liljeblad, 1951.

52a&b, T Wuzzie George, Ethelyn Coverston, July 25, 1956.

53, Fritz Riddell, Sept. 1954.

54, Edna Jones, May, 1952.

55, Pyramid Lake Tribal meeting re. Pyramid lease.

56, Charles Camp, pinenut prayer and dance, 1953.

57, Nixon open meeting re. lease of Pyramid.

58a&b, T Wuzzie and Jimmie George at Stillwater, Nov. 24, 1956.

59, Indian songs.

60, Nixon meeting, A. Winnemucca, B. Ladd.

61, Stewart Ridley.

62, T Wuzzie George, Wendell Wheat, Mar. 29, 1958.

63, T Wuzzie George, Edna & Willie Jones, April, 1964.


Box 20

Tape #, Transcript Subject:

64, Edna and Willie Jones, Schurz, April 1965. Element distribution, spring - for dreaming, location, Reese River Canyon, pass over Wasuck, travel [original punctuation unclear].

65, Tippy Wadsworth, Indian songs, April 15, 1951, Fernley P.T.A.

66, Willie & Edna Jones, fishweirs (Tule Springs).

67, T Practice dance, Oct. 27, 1955.

68, T Syd Lamb, impressions.

69, Herbert Pancho, Mabel Wright Paulina, 1964.

70-71, Herbert Pancho.

72, Mabel Wright Paulina. May, 1964.

73, Mabel Wright Paulina. May, 1964.

74, Andy Vidovich, Alice Vidovich, Feb. 1966.

75-76, Paiute text recorded by Sven Liljeblad, Rosie Quartz, Girtie Holbrook.

77, Helen Williams, Am. Arc. meeting, Spring 1968. Also Birdie Dave, Rosie Moose.

78, Essie Allen, June 1968.

79, Wuzzie George, June 11, 1968.

80, Wuzzie George.

81, Wuzzie George. (Stored in box 19 because of size)

82, Wuzzie George - hummingbird.

82-83, Pinenut festival. Schurz, Sept. 28, 1968.

84, Wuzzie George. No tape available.

85, Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina, songs. Cassette copy.

86, Wuzzie George. Cassette copy.

87, A. Winnemucca, Billie Williams re Fish Council.

88-89, Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina, 1968. Cassette copies.

90, Andy Vidovich.

91, Mabel Wright Paulina.

92, Margaret Wheat report.

93, T Nina Winnemucca, Mabel Wright Paulina.

94, Astronauts.

95, T Helen Williams.

96, T Andy Vidovich.

97, T Birdie Dave, Helen Williams, Rosie Moose.

98, T Helen Williams.

99, T Wuzzie George and Ray Alcorn at Nev. State Museum.


Box 21

Tape #, Transcript Subject:

100, T Andy Vidovich.

101, T Mabel Wright Paulina, Daisy Aster.

102, T Mabel Wright Paulina, Mamie John.

103, T Helen Williams, Birdie Dave. No tape available.

104, T Helen Williams, Birdie Dave, April 29, 1969.

105, T Helen Williams, April 30, 1969.

106, T Birdie Dave sings, May 8, 1969.

107, T Helen Williams, May 16, 1969.


Box 22

Tape #, Transcript Subject:

108, Helen Williams, May 16, 1969, con't. (duplicate in Box 19 because of size).

109, Lulu Jim, Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright Paulina.

110, T Nellie Emm, May 23, 1969.

111, Edna Jones. No tape available.

112, Edna Jones, May 26, 1969.

113, T Mabel Wright Paulina, Ethel O'Neil, June 7, 1969.

114, T Mabel Wright Paulina, Ethel O'Neil, Ruth Houghten, June 20, 1969.

115, T Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright Paulina, Katie Frazier. Copied onto 5" reel.

116, T Nellie Emm, July 10, 1969.

117, T Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright Paulina, June 25, 1969.

118, T Wuzzie George, Sven Liljeblad, Aug. 5, 1969.

119, T Wuzzie George, Sven Liljeblad. No tape available. Copied from wire spool #24.

120-121, T Wuzzie George, Sven Liljeblad, Aug. 6, 1969.

122-123, Wuzzie George, Sven Liljeblad, Aug. 7, 1969.

124-130, Wuzzie George, Sven Liljeblad, Aug. 11-15, 1969

131, T Katie Frazier, Daisy Aster, Mabel Wright Paulina, Sept. 1969.

132, T Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina, Minnie Houten (stored in box 19 because of size).


Box 23

Tape #, Transcript Subject:

133, T Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright Paulina.

134, Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright Paulina, Karen Jensen, Count Poralli (spelling?).

135, Daisy Aster, Mabel Wright Paulina. No tape available.

136, T Ethel O'Neil, Josie French, Mabel Wright Paulina.

137, T Katie Frazier. No tape available.

138, T Helen Williams, Nov. 11, 1969.

139, Amy James, Frances Brown.

140, Jean Smith, Jan. 10, 1970. Copied onto cassette (2 copies).

141, T Marion Paddy, Jan. 13, 1970.

142, T Edna Jones. No tape available.

143, T Wuzzie George tells stories, April 1, 1970.

144-145, T Wuzzie George, Edna Jones, Dr. Payne, about sweat ceremony in Fall, 1969.

146, Edna Jones, Ruth Russell, April 19, 1970.

147, T Dr. Ralph Payne, April 21, 1970.

148, T Wuzzie George, Tootsie Bowser.

149, T Helen Williams re census sheets.

150, Mabel Wright Paulina, Herbert Pancho, Nov. 1970.

151, T Storage of Telmar tape recorder recordings. Katie, Ethel, Mabel.


Box 24

152, Indian songs by Harrison Frazier at a public meeting.

153, Edna Jones at Tahoe, 1965.

154, Marion Paddy, Barney.

155, Mabel Wright Paulina, Herbert Pancho on census.

156, Mabel Wright Paulina, Ethel O'Neil.

157, Mrs. Alex Miller re Wovoka. Copied onto 5" reel.

165, T Wuzzie George at Soda Lake.

No #, 2 unidentified tapes.

No #, 3 tapes: "Elko Conf.," "N.A.S. No. 1 & 2."

175, Wheat, Herbert Poncho, Mabel Wright, Pyramid Lake songs, texts, Wheat discussing archaeological cave sites.

176, Letter dictated to Sven Liljeblad.


WIRE TAPES (with a notation as to which reel-to-reel tape contains a copy):

Box 25

Tape #, Subject:

1, Alice Steve, Indian words.

2, Alice Steve, home life. Transcribed onto tape #18.

3, Ed Dyer, Mar. 1957.

4, Land birds. Transcribed onto tape #24.

5, Plants, 1-20 Animals. Transcribed onto tape #19.

6, Artifacts.

7, Water birds, birds of prey, game, wading birds. Transcribed onto tape #24.

8, Shrubs 20-32, Marsh plants 32-59. Transcribed onto tape #19 to plant no. 44 (phragmites).

9, Artifacts.

10, Impersonations - Syd Lamb.

11-17, Sheehan I-VIII; #V missing. Transcribed onto tapes #1-7.

18, Pyramid, insects, seasons of the year.

19, Cordage, sagebrush, bark, baskets, burial. Transcribed onto tape #18.

20, Reptiles 10, Spiders 3, trees 9, fishes 9, frogs 3. 1952. Transcribed onto tape #23.

21, Not identified.

22, Listed as "not recorded". Indicated as transcribed on tape #22 ("fish reptiles at U of N., Mar. 9, 1952").

23, Willie Jones singing (rather poor - not copied onto tape).

24, Edna Jones. Transcribed on tapes 25 & 25A.

24b, Snakes, insects at U of N, Mar. 9, 1952. Transcribed onto tape #22.

25, Dyer, Deb Stewart, LeRoy Schank, Jan. 16, 1951.


Box 26

Tape #, Subject:

26, Artifacts at Museum, Mar. 25, 1952.

26, "Snagged on rewind, contents on tape."

27, Not identified.

28, "File indicates not recorded."

29, Mr. & Mrs. Ed A. Dyer, Mar. 1957. Transcribed onto tape #14.

30, The Family. Wuzzie George, Dora John, Lily Shaw, Maxine Robbins, M. Wheat. "[Check #29-30 for transcription.]"

31, Wuzzie No. 3, Feb. 27, 1957.

32, Fish, reptiles, U of N.

33, Willie Jones.

34, Wuzzie No. 6, Feb. 27, 1957. Transcribed onto tape #29.

35, Wuzzie No. 2, Feb. 27, 1957.

A Pygmy Mummy - Wheat record.

No #, Blank

2 wire take-up reels and directions.


Cassette Tapes

The following tapes were originally recorded on cassette tapes:

Box 27

Tape #, Contents:

135, Nixon, May 5, 1969.

143a&b, Wuzzie George and Winona.

150, Mabel Wright Paulina and Herbert Pancho, census.

159, Wuzzie George, Mar. 4, 1976. Water jugs, houses, food storage.

160, Rolling Thunder - Sizzman.

161, Dexter. Washo.

162-164, Jean Dexter, Dec. 1974.

166, Snake Colony. Pug Ike (Shoshone), Juanita Ike, Louise Brady, identification of plants, Dec. 26, 1974.

167-168, Wuzzie George identifying plants, Dec. 16-17, 1974.

169, Mabel Wright Pauline, Ethel O'Neil.

170-171, Amy Williams - Shoshone.

172, Wuzzie George, Kay Fowler, Margaret Wheat.

173-174, Wuzzie George, Kay Fowler, Margaret Wheat, Sven Liljeblad, Sept. 1977.

175, Wheat, Herbert Poncho, Mabel Wright, Pyramid Lake songs, texts. Wheat discussing archaeological cave sites.

176, Letter dictated to Sven Liljeblad.


Box 28

Note: none of the tapes in this box have tape numbers.

-Lily McGinnis.

-Carbon 14 dating; MT.

-Archaeological; Archaeology.

-Jon Davis; Carbon 14 dating.

-Roger - argument.

-Pleistocene climate; MT.

-Pleistocene geology, MT (2 tapes).

-Pack rat; Peg Wheat.


Series V. Photographs and Film.

Several thousand photographs were donated to the Special Collections Department by Mrs. Wheat, most of which are of the Fallon area or of Northern Paiute subjects. These photographs include those used for research and publication in Wheat's book, Survival Arts of the Primitive Paiutes; photographs attributed to photographer Laura E. Mills; and photographs and negatives taken by Rolly R. Ham of scenes in the Fallon, Nevada region. These photographs and the film described below, were transferred to the photo archives sections of the Special Collections Department.

Laura E. Mills Photographs:

This group contains 18 photographic prints showing food harvesting, primarily pinenuts, and six prints showing earthquake damage around Fallon and Stillwater, 1954.

Rolly R. Ham Photographs:

This group of over 800 prints, negatives and glass plate negatives depict scenes in the Fallon area; however, other subjects include the Lahontan Dam construction, Northern Paiute Indians, Donner Lake, and Reno and San Francisco scenes.

Margaret M. Wheat Photographs:

In addition to photos used in Survival Arts this group of images includes prints and negatives taken by Wheat showing Northern Paiute activities such as food gathering, pinenut harvesting, cui-cui fishing, preparing hunting implements, tanning deer hides, weaving, and playing games; scenes of historical sites such as Cold Springs Station, Grimes Station, and Fort Scott, Nevada; the Lahontan Valley area; Little Lake, California archaeological dig, and some unidentified landscapes, flood, and camp scenes.

Research Photographs:

A small group of photographs was encountered while processing the subject files and "Indian" files. Subjects include Jack Wilson (Wovoka) and his grave, the sticks used in the 1879-1880 Indian stick census, earthquake evidences, oil drilling sites, Lahontan Dam construction, Pyramid Lake in the 19-teens, and an Indian exhibit held in Fallon in the 19-teens.Films:

As part of the Fleischmann/Foresta grant, several thousand feet of movie film were shot depicting Paiute lifeways; in addition, the Nevada State Education Department paid for black and white footage which was to be used in Nevada schools. This footage, shot in 1964 and 1979, was compiled into a movie called "Tule Technology," released in 1983. The film was narrated by the grandson and granddaughter of Wuzzie and Jimmie George and depicts the life of the Stillwater Paiutes. The film was produced by the Anthropology Department of the University of Reno, Nevada in conjunction with the Smithsonian Office of Folklore. Project producers were Catherine Fowler, Margaret Wheat, and Tom Venum Jr. The film is available on VHS video cassette in the film library of the Getchell Library, University of Nevada, Reno.

The original film footage which is contained in the Margaret Wheat collection is in color as well as black and white and consists of two formats: brief film segments (5-10 minutes or less) on specific topics such as basket making and pinenut gathering, and seven longer reels (400-1000'), each of which consists of a number of activities and scenes. This latter film is credited to Dave Nichols and was made in 1964. All descriptions below are courtesy of Catherine Fowler, UNR Anthropology Department.

The original film footage is not available for viewing and is stored in the Special Collections vault. VHS video tape copies of these films have been made and are available for patron viewing. See the following list:


-Wuzzie George and several other women gathering reed or tules.

-Splitting and peeling reeds.

-Making a basket from prepared materials.

-Finished baskets on glass museum shelving, close up of designs.

-Woman in front of exhibit of Dat-So-La-Lee baskets.

-More close ups of basket details.

-Wuzzie George and women gathering wild grain, winnowing grain.

-Woman cutting paper pattern, transferring pattern to animal hide & cutting out pieces. Soaking and other hide curing preparations.TAPE 1, con't.

-Gathering and splitting reeds or grasses.

-Gathering short green shoots, wild onions. Wuzzie eating something, cooking something in hot coals.

-Sorting dried materials, removing cooked food from fire. Splitting reeds, using product to sew skins.

-Women winnowing in field.



-Wuzzie and another woman gathering cat tail reeds from field, bundling them.

-Wuzzie making duck decoy from tules, showing finished decoy.

-Panorama of plain and mountains. Wuzzie gathering seeds, gathering clumps of reeds, trimming with knife after they were bundled, shaping into duck decoy body.

-Making duck decoy.

-Shopping at Safeway supermarket.

-Museum panorama showing Indian life.

-Gathering and preparing pinenuts.

-Shopping at Safeway supermarket.

-Mats made of tules.

-Wuzzie gathering pinenuts and preparing.

-Woman making a basket.

-Panoramic view of fields and mountains. Gathering slender branches, removing twigs. Trash strewn along countryside. Fish swimming in stream.



-Wuzzie and her daughter Winona George gathering tules, weaving mats to form walls of house. Setting up branches which form wall supports, covering with tule mats.


Series VI. Correspondence of S.R. Mareans. 1918-1968.

Box 29

This series contains letters sent by S.R. Mareans, father of Margaret Wheat, to his family and friends. The subjects of these letters includes news of his work and activities of he and his wife, and news of other family members which Mr. Marean heard first hand or from letters. This correspondence is arranged chronologically.


Series VII. Manuscripts of Survival Arts of the Primitive Paiutes. n.d.

Box 29

This series contains two manuscript copies of Wheat's book: a working copy and a copy labeled "First Draft." These drafts were given the working title of "Lost Arts of Primitive Paiutes."